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area. Consequently, scientific truth is not an objective category, but it is always an institutionalised consensus of a scientific community existing in a certain era and place. 1 In this study, I examine the paradigms of local self-government and

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In the Hungarian legal system-after 50 years-, formerly known legal institutions (such as self-governments, private companies, public institutions) reappeared. These legal institutions are independent of the state, they have their own revenues and properties. Thus the possibility of their insolvency was brought up naturally. The Hungarian legal system does not provide an unambiguous definition of public institution. However, with an eye to foreign legal solutions and the Hungarian specialities, we can formulate the concept of public institution which includes organs that are actually separated from the state, that have autonomy, legal personality, independent budget, their own booking (accounting), and that perform tasks of public utility. These criteria are met by three types of organs: self-governments, public bodies, public funds. However, legal regulations concerning these types are not homogeneous. After 1990, when public institutions were established, the state drew back from several public functions and has striven to withdraw itself from the responsibility for inadequate financial administration ever since.

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The Article gives a general overview of the Hungarian constitutional and legal framework for the participation of national minorities in the decision-making. The relatively low number of people belonging to national minorities in Hungary as well as the scattered patterns of their settlement and some aspects of the Hungarian legal traditions underlie the choice of the so called personal autonomy approach. The minorities can establish via a special electing mechanism local and national self-governments enjoying consultative and truly public law type rule-making and administrative competences. Having given the proper interpretation of the relevant article of the Constitution, the Constitutional Court also contributed to the birth of the Act on the Rights of Minorities. The basic reason behind the creation of a very complicated, multilevel institutional complex is that in this way, educational and cultural needs of minorities of different scale can be represented in a relatively coherent manner. This does not exclude at all the possibility of bringing modifications to the legal text in the light of a decade's experience.

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] Holmi 7 891 905 Riba, István (1999): Minority Self-Governments in Hungary. The Hungarian Quarterly , 155

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„Vezetékszerelés” – rögtönzések a felsőoktatásban

Tinkering Higher Education Management in Public Higher Education in Hungary

Educatio
Author: Tibor Szabó

Absztrakt:

A tanulmány a hazai kancellári rendszer bevezetésének okait és következményeit keresi. A költségvetési felügyelők körében végzett kutatással arra a megállapításra jut, hogy a kancellári rendszer bevezetése természetes folyamat része. Durva és gyors bevezetését feltehetően az okozta, hogy a magyar felsőoktatás irányítói a korábban alkalmazott vezetési modellt javíthatatlannak és végzetesen elavultnak tartották. Az alkalmazott modell a rektori hatásköröket a kancellártól függővé és jórészt formálissá teszi. Az átalakítás változtat az állami felsőoktatási intézmények szervezeti tulajdonságain, csökkenti az önigazgatás súlyát. Teljesítménymérések nélkül ugyanakkor lehetetlen megállapítani, hogy a változások iránya, mértéke jobb vagy rosszabb intézményeket jelent.

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Társadalmi mozgalom-e az országos hallgatói képviselet?

The students’ organisations and social movements

Educatio
Authors: Andrea Szabó and Dániel Oross

Absztrakt:

A cikk a társadalmi mozgalmakkal foglalkozik. Azt vizsgálja, hogy az ifjúsági társadalom elmúlt negyedszázadában milyen mozgalmi csírákat azonosíthattunk. A fogalmi magyarázatot követően a cikk arra koncentrált, hogy ezek a mozgalmak milyen sikereket, kudarcokat értek el, és miként befolyásolták az ifjúság általános beállítódását. Nyilvánvalóan fontos e téren az országos hallgatói képviselet és az alternatív hallgatói mozgalom, leginkább a HaHa és ennek középiskolai változatának elemzése. Érdekes, és külön vizsgálandó kérdés, hogy az ifjúsági társadalom nyertes és vesztes csoportjaiban azonosított két szubkultúra, a kuruc.info és a Critical Mass tudott-e mozgalommá fejlődni, és ha igen, hogyan változtatta meg a magyar fiatalok politikai közgondolkodását.

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of school life : the areas in which students express their opinions , school decision-making and the operation of the student self-government (DÖK); 4. opportunities for a more democratic school operation , being informed about public affairs

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In 2014 there were three elections in Hungary: the election of Members of Parliaments, the election of members of the European Parliament, furthermore, the elections of representatives and mayors of municipalities and of representatives of national minority local self-governments. The Hungarian Parliament passed a new act on electoral procedure in 2013 and we have had a new Criminal Code since 2012. This study examines a new legal institution, the recommendation sheets, which raise many questions, including criminal liability. The main theme of the study is the misuses related to recommendation sheets.

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development of their national, linguistic, cultural and religious identity;’ 17 that is, ‘to support the activity of the National Council of the Hungarian National Minority in Serbia and Montenegro and the Self-Government of the Serbs in the Republic of

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mother tongue. The weakness consisted in material reduction in self-government in education compared to the period of monarchy. 16 One of the most important demands of minorities, mostly of the Germans, was autonomy in interwar Czechoslovakia. Autonomy

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