Authors:Adebayo Surajudeen Adekunle, Adekunle Akanni Adeleke, Peter Pelumi Ikubanni, Peter Olorunleke Omoniyi, Tajudeen Adelani Gbadamosi, and Jamiu Kolawole Odusote
groundnut oil gives the best result at 350 °C. Meanwhile, the highest hardness values were obtained from sample quenched in melon oil. Durowoju et al. [ 21 ] investigated the impact of severity and hardness using eco-friendly quenchants such as groundnut
The incidence and severity of diarrhoea associated with Clostridioides difficile have been increasing exponentially. In 2014, an outbreak with the hypervirulent ribotype 027 strain was firstly reported in Portugal and, among others, this ribotype have been mainly isolated from animals and food. This study aimed to detect and quantify C. difficile from different meats sold in traditional commerce and hypermarkets in two different cities of Portugal, Porto and Lisboa.
Techniques of quantification and detection of C. difficile were performed, but absence of C. difficile in the 143 analysed samples indicates that, if present, the level of contamination should be very low (below 2 log CFU g−1). Despite the lack of confirmed cases of foodborne diseases caused by C. difficile, the increased CDI incidence suggests that contaminated foods may contribute to C. difficile-acquired infections.
Mycotoxins are natural compounds that may cause various adverse toxicological manifestations in humans and animals. The nature, the severity and scope of their adverse activity are varied and in general, even in small amount they have potent carcinogenic, genotoxic effect and injure the immune system. In order to provide high level of health protection for consumers, the European Union has established strict regulatory limits, whose implementation is enforced.The EC (2001) Commission Regulation sets maximum levels for some mycotoxins in foodstuffs: for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins, T-2 and HT-2 toxins. Particular product categories are regulated under specific decisions ordaining control of imported consignments at the point of entry. Due to the fact that only aflatoxins are addressed in the specific decisions, they are the mostly detected and notified mycotoxins in the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). The second most frequent group, Ochratoxin A is typically detected during internal EU market controls. Most RASFF notifications concern product categories falling under specific EU decisions, especially the Aflatoxin content of nuts and nut products. Significant amount of aflatoxins can be found also in dried fruits, spices and herbs.The article reviews and analyses the data available in rapid alert system concerning mycotoxins notification, and evaluates the usefulness of this information for risk assessment. The value of RASFF system is unquestionable and it fulfils its intended function included in its name. The system is a significant source of valuable information, but for risk assessment purposes, other additional information is needed. It could be used most effectively for risk assessment, if it was to provide data on the ratio of all/tested/positive lots and if the authorities provided not only the positive results, but also the exact mycotoxins level of every analysed sample.
Authors:Susana Pinto-Castilla, Santiago Marrero, Yraida Díaz, Joaquín L. Brito, Pedro Silva, and Paulino Betancourt
requires more severity in the operating conditions. Pentylamine was never found among the products, piperidine was the major product ( Fig. 3b ), which arises from the pyridine hydrogenation step. In general, the HDN reaction involves a dual-site mechanism
Authors:L. Ben Haj Said, S. Bellagha, and K. Allaf
fruit, the significantly lower decrease in TEW is explained by a much better tissue organisation and relatively few cell ruptures observed in the partially dried samples prior to the freezing process ( Sormani et al., 1999 ). Indeed, a low severity air