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. Han , C. 2015 a. Investigating Rater Severity/Leniency in Interpreter Performance Testing: A multifaceted Rasch measurement approach . Interpreting Vol. 17 . No. 2 . 255 – 283

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references have been removed, including those relating to Kristoff, the only main character in the song. The target version’s rhyme, rhythm, and singability are quite similar to the source version, supporting the characters’ authority and the severity of

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Erin M. Altenburger BA, Esther S. Tung, and Nancy J. Keuthen


Background and aims

Trichotillomania (TTM) often first presents in adolescence, a developmental period marked by vulnerability in body image. To date, no one has studied the relationship between this disorder and body esteem.


49 adolescents with DSM-IV TTM or chronic hair pulling (HP) and 23 control adolescents were administered diagnostic assessments and self-report measures of hair pulling and body esteem.


HP youth vs. controls reported lower levels of body esteem on all Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) subscales (appearance, attribution and weight satisfaction). HP contributed to lowered body esteem, independent of comorbid anxiety or depression. As expected, HP youth with vs. without comorbid anxiety or depression reported lowered levels of body esteem. Further, greater HP severity and distress were significantly associated with lower levels of body esteem. HP severity alone but not distress/impairment predicted lower levels of body esteem, independent of comorbid anxiety and depression.


Both hair pulling and comorbid anxiety and depression can independently impact body esteem in adolescent hair pullers.

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This paper describes the forms and functions of Hungarian apology routine formulae (RF) used by Hungarian adults in a written Discourse Completion Test. Five apology RF types are identified, their choices being influenced by such factors as the offence type and its severity, the social role of the interlocutor and the offender's gender. Two main apology RF types, Ne haragudj `Don't be angry' and Elnézést `Excuse me' are shown to perform complementary communicative functions of restoring harmony in familiar vs. unfamiliar settings. Gender differences in the use of RF types present on various levels of analysis demonstrate that males and females choose different ways to restore social harmony and may attach importance to different aspects of the context.

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King Matthias Corvinus' is a beloved figure in the folklore of the Slav nations of the historic Hungarian kingdom. This folklore divides into two groups: in the South Slavs' folklore the genre of historical epos prevails, while in the Slovak, Rusyn and Hungarian folklore King Matthias appears first of all as a protector of the common people against their masters' self-will, as a fair and wise king. In the Rusyn folklore King Matthias and his military leader Pál Kinizsi are being nationalised. They appear as  Rusyns; the tales of King Matthias teem with local toponyms and  often reflect  real historic events and facts. In this way people unintentionally show King Matthias' great services at the legislative definition of the Rusyns' privilegies and rights, which exerted influence upon the shaping of their national identity. The theme of King Matthias' love-affairs, known in the Slovak folklore, does not exist in the Rusyn tradition. Thus, in particular the Rusyns' folklore stands closest to that of Hungarians. In comparison with the Hungarian folklore one can point to its greater severity and elements of sorcery and superstitions, typical in general of the world view of the Rusyn common people.

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The Treaty of Trianon was the peace settlement that the victors of World War I imposed on Hungary after the war. The treaty's severity was unprecedented in modern European history. By dismembering the multi-ethnic “historic Kingdom of Hungary” the treaty left Hungarians less than a third of their former territory and transferred 3.3 million of them to neighboring states. Not surprisingly, Trianon came as a shock to the Hungarian people and constituted an enduring blow to the Magyar national psyche. During the next quarter century, Hungarians were obsessed with the idea of reversing this dictum and the primary objective of their foreign policies was the creation of international conditions in which the revision of Trianon could become possible. For this purpose the regime in Budapest sought allies, as this aim could be attained only with outside help. By the first half of 1941 this search had led to Hungary's entanglement in an alliance with Nazi Germany. Once Hungary became a partner in the Nazi war, the danger emerged that if the country did not toe the German line, Hitler would reverse the frontier adjustments that he had rendered earlier in Hungary's favor. Already during the late summer of 1941 some of Hungary's statesmen realized that the Third Reich might not win the war, but their plans to limit their contribution to the Nazi war effort and to prepare for defection from the Axis were frustrated by the fear that, if they abandoned or weakened the alliance with Berlin, no more “lost” Hungarian lands could be regained and lands already recovered might be forfeited again.

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. D. C. Smith 2006 Can parenting predict initial clinical severity and substance abuse outcomes among adolescent substance abusers in outpatient treatment

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