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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of endophytic fungi from tartary buckwheat on the host sprout growth and functional metabolite production. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous fungal mycelia elicitors notably stimulated the sprout growth and rutin accumulation, and the stimulation effect was mainly depended on the mycelia elicitor species along with its treatment dose. Three endophytic fungi Fat6 (Bionectria pityrodes), Fat9 (Fusarium oxysporum) and Fat15 (Alternaria sp.) were screened to be the most effective candidates for promoting F. tataricum sprout growth and rutin production. With application of polysaccharide (PS, 150 mg/l) of endophyte Fat6, PS (200 mg/l) of endophyte Fat9, and PS (150 mg/l) of endophyte Fat15, the rutin yield was effectively increased to 47.89 mg/(100 sprouts), 45.85 mg/(100 sprouts) and 46.83 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. That was about 1.5- to 1.6-fold compared to the control culture of 29.37 mg/(100 sprouts). Furthermore, the present study revealed that the biosynthesis of the functional flavonoid resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by mycelia polysaccharide treatments. Application of specific fungal elicitors could be an efficient strategy for improving the nutritional and functional quality of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

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associated with resistance to pre-harvest sprouting in wheat. Crop Sci. 33 :453–459. Tanksley S.D. RFLP analysis of genomic regions associated with resistance to pre-harvest sprouting

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Sz. Szabó, Zs. Németh, É. Polyák, I. Bátai, M. Kerényi, and M. Figler

., Jark , U., Kirchner , M., Koch , J., Krause , G., Luber , P., Rosner , B., Stark , K. & Kühne , M. (2011): German outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 associated with sprouts. New England J. Medicine, 365 , 1763

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1 1167 Splittstoesser, D. F., Queale, D. T. & Andaloro, B. W. (1983): The microbiology of vegetable sprouts during commercial production. J. Fd Safety , 5 , 79

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, E. ( 2010 ): Polyphenol composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of amaranth, quinoa, buckwheat and wheat as affected by sprouting and baking . Food Chem. , 119 , 770 – 778 . APEDA ( 2016 ): http

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: W. Wiczkowski, D. Szawara-Nowak, T. Sawicki, J. Mitrus, Z. Kasprzykowski, and M. Horbowicz

– 278 . Janovska , D. , ŠToČKovÁ , L. & Stehno , Z . ( 2010 ): Evaluation of buckwheat sprouts as microgreens . Acta Agr. Slov. , 95 , 157

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adults. We hypothesized that a 40% substitution of semolina flour with sprouted chickpea flour (SCF40), or non-sprouted chickpea flour (non-SCF40), would increase the antioxidant capacity in vitro as measured by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity

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, protein synthesis, and other metabolic process will be initiated. After a certain period, the embryo will emerge from the seed, signed with the appearance of radicle or hypocotyl in the surface of the seed. The sprout of the seed will emerge because of the

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Summary

Red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) are pseudocereals with particularly highly regarded nutritional value. Because of the high biological significance of the flavonoids and phenolic acids in these plants, qualitative and quantitative analysis has been performed by HPLC. Extracts from the seeds of two amaranth varieties (A. cruentus v. Rawa and v. Aztek) and quinoa seeds, and their sprouts grown in natural conditions and in the dark were analyzed. The main phenolic acid found both in seeds and sprouts was gallic acid. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and cinnamic acid were also found in the seeds and p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, and ferulic acid in the sprouts. The main flavonoid found in the sprouts was rutin. Vitexin, isovitexin, and morin were also detected in the sprouts, and orientin, vitexin, isovitexin, morin, and traces of hesperidin and neohesperidin in the seeds. Although sprouting conditions (daylight or darkness) had no effect on gallic acid content, light caused an increase in the amount of rutin and darkness resulted in increased amounts of isovitexin and vitexin.

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Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the major abiotic constraints influencing production of high quality grain. Selection for pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in early generations is difficult because it is expressed as a quantitatively inherited trait and subject to environmental effects. The objectives of this study were to validate a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for PHS resistance on chromosome 4A in bread wheat and to isolate near-isogenic lines for this QTL using marker-assisted selection. A total of 60 Canadian wheat cultivars and experimental lines were screened with three SSR markers in a QTL region for PHS resistance. The SSR markers DuPw004, barc170 and wmc650 explained 67%, 75% and 60% of total variation in germination (%), respectively, among different wheat genotypes. Marker assisted back crossing with DuPw004 reduced the population size in BC1F1 and BC2F1 generation by 41% and 59%, respectively. A survey of pedigrees of different genotypes revealed that the parental line RL4137 is a major source of increased PHS resistance in a number of western Canadian wheat cultivars. Microsatellite markers (DuPw004, barc170 and wmc650) will be useful for plant breeders to pyramid QTL from different PHS resistance sources.

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