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various E. coli strains have been demonstrated in a number of murine models, which are summarized elsewhere, but all have their limitations [ 22 ]. Since rats are more easily colonized by E. coli than mice, and since rats are the standard test animal

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the following) targeting the E-gene and the N2-region of the N-gene as the gold standard according to the validation protocol as suggested for laboratory-developed real-time PCR assays by Rabenau and colleagues [ 17, 18 ]. This implies comparative

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16 986 991 Edelmann A, Pietzcker T, Wellinghausen N: Comparison of direct disk diffusion and standard microtitre broth dilution susceptibility

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Triticum monococcum represents an important source of useful genes and alleles that it would be desirable to use in wheat breeding programmes. The well-defined landmarks on the Am chromosomes could accelerate the targeted introgression of T. monococcum chromatin into the wheat genome.Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the repetitive DNA probes pSc119.2, Afa family and pTa71 showed that the pSc119.2 probe was not suitable for the identification of Am chromosomes. In contrast, the whole set of Am chromosomes (especially chromosomes 1, 4, 5 and 7) could be discriminated based on the hybridization pattern of pTa71 and Afa family. In situ hybridization with microsatellite motifs (GAA, CAG, AAC and AGG) proved that SSRs represent additional landmarks for the identification of Am chromosomes. The most promising SSR probes were the GAA and CAG motifs, which clearly discriminated the 6Am chromosome and, when used in combination with the Afa family and pTa71 probes, allowed the whole set of Am chromosomes to be reliably identified.In conclusion, fluorescence in situ hybridization using the repetitive DNA probes Afa family and pTa71, combined with SSR probes, makes it possible to identify the Am chromosomes of T. monococcum and to discriminate them from Au chromosomes in the polyploid wheat background.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Ozlem Temiz-Arpaci, Fatma Doğanc, Duygu Sac, Elmas Sari, Fatma Kaynak-Onurdag, and Suzan Okten

. Chopra , I. ( 2013 ) The 2012 Garrod lecture: Discovery of antibacterial drugs in the 21st century . J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 68 , 496 – 505 . 5. CLSI ( 2008 ) Performance standards for

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definitions for the gold standard-based test comparison approach are presented in the “Case definitions” sub-heading below. Nucleic acid extraction and sample storage All diagnostic stool samples and “Ringversuch” materials had been subjected to standardized

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. Acad. Press, San Diego. Ecotoxicology Swedish Standard Institute (1995) Water quality - Determination of growth inhibition (7-d) Lemna minor

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incubated at 42 °C for 48 h. The clear zones of inhibition were measured to the nearest millimeter using a transparent millimeter ruler and analyzed as described by Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute [ 18 ]. Polymerase Chain

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from an intensive care unit . Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 22 , 48 – 49 ( 2001 ) 10. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute ( 2011 ): Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; twenty

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Introduction As references show, the year of 1665 was the first historical reference of writing modern scientific papers in scholarly journals. Although no style or standard format requirements were defined for scientific papers at that time

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