Even more interesting is his yellow period [ Vase with Fifteen Sunflowers (1888) or self-portraits with straw hat]. In these pictures, the environment and the persons received
Authors:J. Kutasi, Á. Bata, E. Brydl, P. Rafai, and V. Jurkovich
This paper describes the production of an enzyme preparation from the fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus. Thermal resistance, pH stability and lignocellulolytic activity of the enzyme preparation high in xylanase were studied on a variety of grains and forages. The enzyme preparation preserved more than 70% of its original xylanase activity for 4 and 1 h at 60 and 70 °C, respectively. The xylanase activity remained over 80% when the preparation was incubated for 30 min at pH 4.5. In vitro digestibility studies indicated that the enzyme digested 7.5, 8.5 and 8.0% of the dry matter (DM) of barley meal, wheat bran and oat meal samples, respectively. When applying 60-min incubation, 7.5, 7.3 and 8.4% of DM of the oat straw, alfalfa hay and triticale straw was digested, respectively. When the time of digestion was increased to 360 min, the sunflower hull showed 15.8% DM digestibility.
Healthy eating, chiefly the quantity and quality of dietary fats and oils, takes a prominent part in promoting the optimal health status and in preventing the development of chronic disorders, mainly cardiovascular diseases. In Hungary the consumption of lard (the characteristic fat in the Hungarian diet) has fallen by 30% since 1980, and that of edible oil (above all sunflower oil) has been almost triplicated since 1970. The total fat consumption remained unchanged. From the eighties and nineties the mortality of cerebrovascular diseases, atherosclerosis and acute myocardial infarction significantly decreased, that of hypertension remained unchanged. Although cardiovascular diseases have a number of aetiological factors, the change of dietary fats and oils may play a role in the improvement of mortality data.
Authors:G. Szöllőskei, L. Wagner, Stefánia Németh, and F. Husvéth
In this experiment sunflower oil, soybean oil and fish oil were incubated in rumen-fistulated adult ewes (n = 5) to study conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production in the rumen. The individual oils were incubated in nylon bags in the rumen on perlite carrier (40% oil, 60% carrier) over a period of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h for all treatments. During the incubation of each oil primarily the formation of the cis-9, trans-11 isomer of CLA could be observed. Both sunflower and soybean oils showed similar changes in the rumen. After the incubation of these two vegetable oils the proportion of linoleic acid decreased significantly as the duration of incubation increased in the rumen. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the amount of cis-9, trans-11 CLA. However, in the case of sunflower oil the rate of formation of the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer was significantly higher after the different incubation times as compared to soybean oil. Much lower amounts of CLA were formed when fish oil was incubated in the rumen. The level of cis-9, trans-11 isomer produced during these treatments was 10% less than the amount obtained with the other two oils of vegetable origin. Besides the cis-9, trans-11isomer, trans-10, cis-12 CLA could also be detected during the incubation of the different oils in the rumen. However, the level of this isomer was low and did not show consistent differences among the treatments. The results of this experiment indicate that the fatty acid composition of the oils and the duration of incubation collectively determine the amount of CLA produced in the first compartment of the forestomach of ruminants.
Authors:H. K. Pintér, K. K. Boros, E. Pálfi, and G. Veres
, sunflower oil). The higher amount of milk protein could have contributed to the higher ratio of animal protein intake, and the lack of starch in the ONS to the lower starch consumption in the EEN group. The higher amount of iron and zinc intake in the EEN
Authors:Carmen Solcan, Dorina Timofte, Viorel Floristean, Stuart Carter, and Gheorghe Solcan
A study was conducted to evaluate the nephrotoxic effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) in broiler chickens. Forty Ross 308 broilers (6 days old) were divided into two groups: one group received daily, by gavage, ochratoxin A at a daily dose of 50 μg/kg body weight for up to 21 days, while the control group received only diluent (sunflower oil). After 21 days, the chickens were euthanised and the kidneys removed for analysis by histopathology and immunohistochemistry to detect an anti-apoptotic marker (Bcl-2), and by transmission electron microscopy. Macroscopically the kidneys were enlarged, showing degeneration and gout deposits. Histologically, glomerulonephrosis and tubulonephrosis were common lesions in all chicks. In two of the five chicks exposed to OTA for 21 days, focal tubular cell proliferation, multiple adenoma-like structures and Bcl-2-positive epithelial cells were identified in layers of the renal papilla and in convoluted tubules. Transmission electron microscopy of the proximal convoluted tubules identified abnormal forms of mitochondria. The nephrotoxic effect of ochratoxicosis in chickens is probably due to carcinogenic changes induced in the epithelial tissues.
Authors:Erika Tóth, Tamás Tauber, Balázs Wirth, Marcell Nikolausz, Márton Palatinszky, Peter Schumann, and Károly Márialigeti
The effect of several easily degradable substrates, such as protein, starch and sunflower oil was investigated on the bacterial community of a laboratory-scale biogas model system. Besides measuring gas yield, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), Phospholipids Fatty Acid Analysis (PLFA) for Bacteria and T-RFLP analysis of the mcrA gene for Archaea were used. The community of the examined biogas reactors adapted to the new substrates through a robust physiological reaction followed by moderate community abundance shifts. Gas yield data clearly demonstrated the physiological adaptation to substrate shifts. Statistical analysis of DNA and chemotaxonomic biomarkers revealed community abundance changes. Sequences gained from DGGE bands showed the dominance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and the presence of Firmicutes (Clostridia) and Thermotogae. This was supported by the detection of large amounts of branched 15-carbon non-hydroxy fatty acids in PLFA profiles, as common PLFA markers of the Bacteroidetes group. Minor abundance ratios changes were observed in the case of Archaea in accordance with changes of the fed substrates.
Authors:Simona Clichici, C. Catoi, T. Mocan, A. Filip, C. Login, A. Nagy, D. Daicoviciu, N. Decea, C. Gherman, R. Moldovan, and Adriana Muresan
Oxidative stress is related to the liver fibrosis, anticipating the hepatic stellate cells’ (HSC) activation. Our aim was to correlate oxidative stress markers with the histological liver alterations in order to identify predictive, noninvasive parameters of fibrosis progression in the evolution of toxic hepatitis.CCl4 in sunflower oil was administered to rats intragastrically, twice a week. After 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC), hydrogen donor capacity (HD), sulfhydryl groups (SH), and glutathione (GSH) were measured and histological examination of the liver slides was performed. Dynamics of histological disorders was assessed by The Knodell score. Significant elevation of inflammation grade was obtained after the second week of the experiment only (p=0.001), while fibrosis started to become significant (p=0.001) after 1 month of CCl4 administration. Between plasma MDA and liver fibrosis development a good correlation was obtained (r=0.877, p=0.05). Correlation between PC dynamics and liver alterations was marginally significant for inflammation grade (r=0.756, p=0.138). HD evolution revealed a marginally inverse correlation with inflammation grade (r=−0.794, p=0.108). No correlations could be established for other parameters with either inflammation grade or fibrosis stage.Our study shows that MDA elevation offers the best prediction potential for fibrosis, while marginal prediction fiability could be attributed to high levels of plasma PC and low levels of HD.
Authors:A. Svetina, I. Jerković, Ljiljana Vrabac, and S. Ćurić
Thyroid function and morphology, liver morphology, some metabolic indices, haematological parameters and growth performance of fattening pigs fed 00-rapeseed meal (00-RPM) were examined. The control group was fed on a standard diet containing 6% sunflower seed meal (SM) during the growing period and 8% during the finishing period. The first experimental group was fed a diet in which SM was replaced by equal (6% and 8%) amounts of 00-RPM. The second experimental group was fed with a higher (8% and 10%) amount of 00-RPM. There were no significant differences between the control and experimental groups in the serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Thyroid gland and liver weights were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in both groups fed 00-RPM than in the group fed SM. The epithelium of the thyroid gland was cuboidal or columnar and the follicular area was moderately enlarged in pigs fed 00-RPM. Marked changes in liver histology were not observed. The 00-RPM diet increased (P < 0.01) the serum values of total proteins in the first fattening period. At the end of fattening both groups fed 00-RPM had higher (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) concentrations of plasma glucose than the control group. The inclusion of 10% of 00-RPM during the finishing period increased (P < 0.05) the serum values of insulin. Daily weight gain during the growing and the finishing period was higher (P < 0.05) in the experimental groups than in the control group. The results suggest that 6-10% 00-RPM can be used as a protein source in the diet of fattening pigs without poisonous side effects.
Authors:Dénes Kleiner, András Bersényi, Hedvig Fébel, Viktor Hegedűs, Eszter Mátis, and Éva Sárdi
Bevezetés: A transzmetilezés térszerkezet-módosító szubsztitúciós folyamat. Feladata az élő szervezetekben, többek között, a fehérje- és génműködés szabályozása. A táplálékláncon keresztül szervezetbe juttatott metildonor vegyületek hasznosulása, illetve a könnyen mobilizálható metilpool analitikai módszerekkel nyomon követhető. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célul tűzték ki néhány növényi (búza, bab, cékla, káposzta) és állati (baromfi- és nyúlmáj) eredetű táplálék könnyen mobilizálható metilcsoportjainak koncentrációmérését, a transzmetilezés és a redox-homeosztázis kapcsolatának vizsgálatát baromfi- és nyúlmájban, valamint e paraméterek tanulmányozását kísérletes zsírmájban, patkányban. Módszer: Patkánykísérletben a tápot koleszterin, napraforgóolaj és kólsav eltérő koncentrációival dúsították. A könnyen mobilizálható metilcsoportok meghatározása túlnyomásos rétegkromatográfiás módszerrel, a hidrogéndonor-aktivitás mérése 1,1-difenil-2-pikrilhidrazil stabil szabad gyök alkalmazásával, spektrofotometriásan történt. Eredmények: A vizsgált növényi minták közül a legjelentősebb metilpoollal a babmagok rendelkeztek. A baromfimáj a nyúlmájnál szignifikánsan nagyobb könnyen mobilizálható metilcsoportszintet és hidrogéndonor-aktivitást mutatott. Patkányokban, súlyos zsírmájban csökkent a hidrogéndonor-aktivitás, és szignifikánsan csökkent a könnyen mobilizálható metilcsoportszint. Következtetések: Az eredmények felhívják a figyelmet a táplálkozás jelentőségére, különösen az elhízással összefüggő megbetegedések kapcsán. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 1180–1187.