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Current concerns about soil and water quality deterioration, limited possibility of fossil fuels, loss of biodiversity, and in general the viability of rural communities urge to work out methods of sustainable agriculture in the Nyírség region of Hungary. Sustainable agriculture seeks solutions for environmental, economic and agricultural problems at the same time. The aim is to develop new production methods which provide the protection of nature. In sustainable agricultural systems the management of organic matters and, more widely, the whole nutrient management are based on the total self-sufficiency of the farm. The entire cycle of organic matter production and decomposition takes place within the farm boundaries and makes the farm an actual biological system. The rate of metabolism and the organic matter cycle are characteristic features of each farm and define their activity for a long time. Present investigation conducted in Westsik's crop rotation experiment has found a highly significant correlation between organic nitrogen extracted by 0.01 M CaCl 2 solution and potato yield. It has shown that soil organic nitrogen extracted by 0.01 M CaCl 2 solution is a reliable indicator of nitrogen available for mineralization during the growing season. When precise nitrogen fertilizer recommendations are required, the method can supply additional information for environmentally friendly, sustainable agriculture.

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Abstract  

The concentration of 32 elements was determined in phosphate rock samples from the Hazara phosphate deposits of Pakistan using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique employing different irradiation protocols. These included 23 major, minor and trace elements (Al, As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Ta, Th, U, V, Zn and Zr) and 9 rare earth elements (REEs) namely Ce, Eu, Ho, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb. The results have been compared with the global values of these elements. The concentrations for most of the elements studied are lower than the concentrations reported in the literature whereas the concentrations of As, Co, Fe, K, Mn, Na and Sb are comparable. Two samples namely HR-4 and HR-5 have the highest concentrations for majority of the REFs with high enrichment factors. The quality assurance of data was performed through the concurrent use of Lake Sediment (SL-1) and GSJ-JR-1 (Rhyolite) reference materials. The acquired data will serve as a reference for the follow-up studies to assess the agronomic effectiveness of the Hazara phosphate rocks.

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Soil nitrogen undergoes a series of chemical and biological transformations, which influence their availability to plants and the leaching losses. Methods for measuring various forms of nitrogen in soil are important in order to improve N management and to minimize losses of essential nutrients in soils.  In the present study 0.01 M CaCl 2 extraction was used to determine the concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and N-organic forms, as these are closely related to the N mineralization potential of the soil and play a major role in nitrogen availability to plants. Improving the precision of nitrogen requirement estimation is essential for increasing the efficiency and minimizing potential losses of nitrogen in agricultural production. A better knowledge of the plant-availability of nitrogen may help improve the efficient use of fertilizers and organic manure. In the present study the amounts of N-NO 3 , N-NH 4 and N organic were studied in Westsik's crop rotation experiment. The crop rotation experiment was established in 1929, and is the best known and most remarkable example of continuous production in Hungary, enabling the study of the long-term effects of organic manure treatment, the development of models and the prediction of the probable influences of different cropping systems on soil properties and crop yields in the Nyírség (sandy soil) region of Hungary.  The study aimed the optimization of the fertilizer recommendation system by considering the soil N-organic content as a measurement of site-specific mineralization potential. The 0.01 M CaCl 2 extraction method measures soluble organic N compounds that are related to the mineralization of organic nitrogen in the soil.  The introduction of this concept can possibly result in a more environment-friendly nitrogen fertilization, without negative effects on the yield or the quality of produced crops. Taking practicability and costs into consideration, the 0.01 M CaCl 2 extraction method is suitable for the routine analysis of measuring easily available organic nitrogen. 

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Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are obligatory biotrophic symbionts living in the roots of most terrestrial plants. AM fungi (AMF) have a positive effect on plant growth and plant nutrition, especially under stress conditions.  The aim of the present study was to observe the relationship between the mycorrhizal dependency and nutrient uptake of host plants and the rate of AMF colonization in a pot experiment. The degree of host growth responses to AMF colonization is expressed as mycorrhizal dependency (MD).  The pot trial was set up with a sterilized calcareous chernozem soil from Nagyhörcsök (Hungary) in a growth chamber under controlled climatic conditions. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants were inoculated with Glomus claroideum (BEG23) , Glomus fasciculatum (BEG53), Glomus geosporum (BEG11), Glomus mosseae (BEG12) strains and a Glomus mosseae AMF culture produced by authors. The dry biomass production, the micro- and macronutrient concentrations of the shoots and the parameters of the mycorrhizal infection were determined. Each AM fungi species or isolate caused different and distinct changes in host plant growth and nutrient uptake. The biomass production of tomato increased significantly in the presence of AM symbiosis. The mean values of MD, calculated from shoot dry matter, varied between 36% and 55%. Mycorrhizal inoculation improved the P, N and K uptake of tomato. The highest values for root colonization, frequency of infection or arbuscular richness were found in the root of tomato inoculated with the two Glomus mosseae strains. The highest MD and nutrient contents appeared in the shoot of tomato treated withour Glomus mosseae strain, which may indicate a stronger affinity (compatibility) between the symbiotic partners. The results confirmed that the selected AMF strains are applicable in sustainable horticulture.

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The cultivation methods used in the experiments resulted in marked differences in the weediness of maize and wheat. The least weediness was found in the conventional tillage treatment. The crucial question in the conservation and no tillage for sustainable agriculture is the weed problem, especially if the technology of weed controls is unaltered as compare to the traditional one. The lower yield in this cultivation system can be attributed to the competition of weeds. To clarify the question, investigations were carried out in the years 2005–2008 in a long-term field experiment set up on brown forest soil at the University of Pannonia, Georgikon Faculty Keszthely. The lowest yields were obtained in the wheat–maize no-tillage system in comparison to the others. This was valid at high and low levels alike (good and unfavorable years). On the average of years the yield decrease was 10–15% as compared to the traditional cultivation. In the spring survey of the weed cover (%) in the wheat trials it was found that the weed coverage increased parallel with the N fertilizer amounts, and then declined in the treatment above 200 kg N. The relation of weeds v.s. N fertilizer is similar to the second power equation of the yield curve. In case of the maize trials, there were no significant differences between the N treatments (25–30%) regarding weed coverage. The gained results call attention to the fact that with the propagation of the reduced soil cultivation systems it is necessary to modify and harmonize the practice of weed control and fertilization. Instead of the schematic weed control and fertilization process, the application of scientifically well-established methods should be urged. In sustainable agriculture the data collection of weeds, the survey of dominant species, special herbicide combinations and the means of precision agriculture have to be taken into consideration.

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., 2010. Impact of long term trials on crop production research and education. Acta Agron. Hung. 58 . Suppl. 1–5. Várallyay, Gy., 2003. Role of soil multifunctionality in future sustainable agricultural development

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Anita Szabó, Klára Pokovai, Péter Ragályi, Márk Rékási, Renáta Sándor, Botond Bernhardt, József Koncz, Rita Kremper, and Péter Csathó

Quality and Human Health . Sustainable Agricultural Reviews 9 . Springer , Dordrecht-Heidelberg-New York-London . 1 – 9 . A ro , A. , A lfthan , G. , V aro , P. , 1995 . Effects

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Felhasznált irodalom Amézketa , A. , 1999 . Soil Aggregate Stability: A Review . Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. . 14

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. V árallyay , G y. , 2003 . Role of soil multifunctionality in future sustainable agricultural development . Acta Agronomica . 51 . ( 1 ) 109 – 124 . V árallyay , G

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Gergely Ujvári, Andrea Borsodi, Júlia Margit Aszalós, Melinda Megyes, Márton Mucsi, Attila Szabó, and Károly Márialigeti

Bhardwaj D. , Ansari M.W. , Sahoo R.K. , Tuteja N. ( 2014 ) Biofertilizers function as key player in sustainable agriculture by improving soil fertility, plant tolerance and crop productivity . [review

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