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The fat content of Bologna-type turkey sausages was partially replaced with pea fiber or potato starch. Textural properties of full fat turkey sausage were mainly restored in sausages when fat was partially replaced with some levels of pea fiber (0.6, 1.2%) or potato starch (1.9%). Authors observed significant correlation (P<0.01) between instrumentally measured values of hardness and chewiness and sensory ratings of low fat sausages.

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The aim of the work was to develop a method to evaluate the effect of bread improver dosage on bread crumb texture. Standard breads were prepared to get different crumb structures when bread improver was added to the flour in a concentrate of 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%. The additive used in the experiments contains lecithin, ascorbic acid and alpha-amylase. Rheological tests and image analysis were performed to predict the effect of the additive. Hardness, chewiness, gumminess, cohesiveness and springiness were determined by rheological method. The rheological properties neither separately nor combined were able to discriminate the different bread crumb groups. Image processing method was developed to determine the ratio of dark to light area of the images taken of the bread slices. It was concluded that both rheological and visual parameters should be taken into account to characterize bread crumb texture.

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The aim of the current paper was to elucidate the influence of temperature and time on acrylamide formation and physico-chemical characteristics of bread. Additionally, the effect of asparaginase addition to bran was evaluated. With increasing baking time and temperature, the amount of acrylamide (µg kg−1) increased. The results indicated that the acrylamide concentration in treated samples with asparaginase was significantly less than those without asparaginase treatment. Based on Pearson’ test, it was found that there was a significant correlation between baking temperature and acrylamide concentration (R=0.99, P=0.025; and R=0.98, P=0.026 for the samples prepared by baking for 2.5 min and 3 min, respectively). The firmness of bread samples increased with increasing baking temperature (P&gt;0.05), while asparaginase addition did not significant affect the textural characteristics of the final product. Breads baked at 320 °C for 3 min were more acceptable by the sensory panel in terms of their texture and chewiness, whereas the samples baked at 370 °C for 2.5 min had the lowest score in comparison to other evaluated samples.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: P. Penksza, R. sárosi, R. Juhász, K. Manninger-kóczán, B. Szabó-Nótin, L. Szakács, and J. Barta

Kip, P., Meyer, D. & Jellema, R.H. (2006): Inulins improve sensoric and textural properties of low-fat yoghurts. Int. Dairy J., 16, 1098–1103. Jellema R.H. Inulins improve

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Potato wedges were deep, shallow, and par-fried in soybean, sesame, and mustard oils using a laboratory formulated citric acid based antioxidant. The wedges were stored at –18 °C for 10, 20, 30, and 40 days. The quality of the wedges was assessed by subjective method (sensory analysis) and objective method (texture studies). Fuzzy logic was applied as a tool to analyze the linguistic data of subjective evaluation. Objective evaluation was conducted by studies on hardness, shear modulus and shear energy of the wedges. The wedges with highest defuzzified scores (obtained by sensory evaluation) and minimum changes in textural properties (P<0.05) were obtained in par-fried soybean oil (after 40 days storage) and in deep fried sesame and mustard oils (both after 30 days storage). The ranking of fried wedges (in the antioxidant administered oils) based on defuzzified scores after 40 days were: sesame > mustard > soybean (deep fry), mustard > soybean > sesame (shallow fry) and soybean > mustard > sesame (par-fry).

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The enrichment of bread with wheat bran as a source of dietary fibre seems to be necessary for human health, because bread is the most consumed commodity in many countries. However, wheat bran has some adverse effects on the bread quality during storage. The aim of this study was to produce barbari bread with increased nutritional value and improved texture by the addition of coated wheat bran (0.67 and 1.34% based on flour stearic acid or St1, 2 and beeswax or Bw1, 2). Bread made from uncoated wheat bran was used as control. The least crust to crumb ratio was seen for control and Bw1. Water activity and moisture content results showed that the crumb of Bw1 and control had the better moisture retention during storage. Textural properties of samples showed that there were no significant differences in the hardness of the samples (P>0.05). However, the least increase in hardness during storage was observed for stearic acid coated samples. Other texture profile analysis parameters, such as cohesiveness and springiness, showed that Bw1 and Bw2 samples had no significant changes during storage. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed the least enthalpy for Bw1 after baking (385.21 J g–1) and during storage (567.62 J g–1). Accordingly, results showed that beeswax, especially at 0.67% (based on flour), is the best shell material for bran coating in order to improve bread texture and shelf life.

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The influence of a food-grade long-chain polyphosphate mixture on the growth and survival of spoilage micro-organisms during storage in an experimental processed cheese spread formulation was evaluated. The emulsifying salt was added to the cheese blend at a concentration of 0.5% or 1.0%. A control product was also manufactured, which contained monophosphate instead of polyphosphate as emulsifying salt, with all other ingredients being identical to those in the experimental processed cheese spread. Half of the finished products were subjected to accelerated shelf-life testing at 37 °C for 10 days, whereas the other half of them was stored refrigerated at 4 °C for 120 days. Microbiological analyses (enumeration of viable cell counts, mesophilic sulphite-reducing clostridia, coliforms, yeasts and moulds) and sensory tests were performed at regular intervals. The results showed that polyphosphates had a beneficial effect on the shelf-life of the processed cheese spread tested in that they significantly reduced (P<0.05) the growth or survival rates of spoilage bacteria, especially of mesophilic sulphite-reducing clostridia. Polyphosphates also beneficially influenced the sensory, including textural properties of the experimental processed cheese spread. All the samples containing less than 1% polyphosphate showed signs of butyric blowing significantly earlier (P<0.05), during both accelerated shelf-life tests and regular refrigerated storage, than did the products fortified with 1% polyphosphate. In conclusion, the suitability of the long-chain polyphosphate formulation tested for shelf life extension of processed cheese spreads was demonstrated.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: O. Velasco-González, S. Echavarría-Almeida, A. Pajarito, and E. San Martín-Martinez

The textural properties and hydration capacity of legumes in general and of beans in particular is a subject about which much research has been done. However, at present there is still no practical answer to the “Hard to Shell” and “Hard to Cook” effects. The present investigation studies 14 varieties of recently picked beans that were grown in Mexico. The beans were classified by size using K-means multivariate analysis, and three fractions were obtained for each variety: large (L), medium (M) and small (S). These fractions were evaluated for hardness, water absorption rate and total water absorption. It was found that the small bean fraction of the varieties studied had the lowest hardness values in comparison to the medium and large fractions. This same behaviour was observed for the water absorption rate and total water absorption; the smaller beans absorbed water more quickly and had greater total water absorption than the other fractions. One kind of bean (Pinto Villa) proved to be much harder than the other varieties. The total water absorption increased and hardness decreased for beans with greater ash content, but no correlation was found between these two properties (water absorption and hardness) for protein and fiber content.

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Kopjar, M., Piližota, V., Nedić Tiban, N., Šubarić, D., Babić, J. & Ačkar, Đ. (2007): Effect of different pectin addition and its concentration on colour and textural properties of raspberry jam. Dt. Lebensm.-Rundsch. , 103 , 164

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.30. Armero , E. & Collar , C. ( 1997 ): Texture properties of formulated wheat doughs . Relationships with dough and bread technological quality Z. Lebensmittelunters. Forsch. , 204 , 136 – 145

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