Heart transplantation (HTX) has become an accepted treatment for selected patients with end-stage heart failure. There are two transplant centres in the Czech Republic, Prague since 1984 and Brno since 1992, in which more than 1000 heart transplantations were performed. Pharmacotherapy after heart transplantation includes the problems of immunosuppression and interactions of immunosuppressant drugs and their adverse effects. The main task for future is to find better immunosuppression with less side effects, to replace invasive bioptic examination of rejection and to find alternatives to clasical transplantation: xenotransplantation, stem cell transplantation or development of new ventricle assisst devices.
Authors:Ama Szmolka, Barbara Lestár, Judit Pászti, Péter Z. Fekete, and Béla Nagy
Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) bacteria frequently cause watery diarrhoea in newborn and weaned pigs. Plasmids carrying genes of different enterotoxins and fimbrial adhesins, as well as plasmids conferring antimicrobial resistance are of prime importance in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of ETEC. Recent studies have revealed the significance of the porcine ETEC plasmid pTC, carrying tetracycline resistance gene tet(B) with enterotoxin genes. In contrast, the role of tet(A) plasmids in transferring resistance of porcine ETEC is less understood. The objective of the present study was to provide a comparative analysis of antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profiles of porcine post-weaning ETEC strains representing pork-producing areas in Central Europe and in the USA, with special attention to plasmids carrying the tet(A) gene. Antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes of 87 porcine ETEC strains isolated from cases of post-weaning diarrhoea in Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary and the Midwest USA was determined by disk diffusion and by PCR. Central European strains carrying tet(A) or tet(B) were further subjected to molecular characterisation of their tet plasmids. Results indicated that > 90% of the ETEC strains shared a common multidrug resistant (MDR) pattern of sulphamethoxazole (91%), tetracycline (84%) and streptomycin (80%) resistance. Tetracycline resistance was most frequently determined by the tet(B) gene (38%), while tet(A) was identified in 26% of all isolates with wide ranges for both tet gene types between some countries and with class 1 integrons and resistance genes co-transferred by conjugation. The virulence gene profiles included enterotoxin genes (lt, sta and/or stb), as well as adhesin genes (k88/f4, f18). Characterisation of two representative tet(A) plasmids of porcine F18+ ETEC from Central Europe revealed that the IncF plasmid (pES11732) of the Czech strain (~120 kb) carried tet(A) in association with catA1 for chloramphenicol resistance. The IncI1 plasmid (pES2172) of the Hungarian strain (~138 kb) carried tet(A) gene and a class 1 integron with an unusual variable region of 2,735 bp composed by two gene cassettes: estX-aadA1 encoding for streptothricin-spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance exemplifying simultaneous recruitment, assembly and transfer of multidrug resistance genes by the tet(A) plasmid of porcine ETEC. By this we provide the first description of IncF and IncI1 type plasmids of F18+ porcine enterotoxigenic E. coli responsible for cotransfer of the tet(A) gene with multidrug resistance. Additionally, the unusual determinant estX, encoding for streptothricin resistance, is first reported here in porcine enterotoxigenic E. coli.
Authors:Bianca Schwarz, Andrea Klang, Barbora Bezdekova, Sára Sárdi, Orsolya Kutasi, and Rene Hoven
Equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF), a progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease has been associated with gammaherpesviruses. This case series describes five horses with EMPF. Three of the horses (two in Hungary, one in the Czech Republic) were diagnosed with EMPF ante mortem. They presented with typical clinical signs of EMPF including dyspnoea and weight loss. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed hypoxaemia. Blood work showed signs of inflammation like neutrophilia and hyperfibrinogenaemia. An endoscopic examination of the respiratory tract including cytology and culture of tracheobronchial secretion and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed, revealing secondary bacterial infection in one case. A suspected diagnosis of EMPF was made on the basis of a positive EHV-5 PCR from bronchoalveolar lavage and the findings of thoracic radiographs and ultrasound examination. In one case the diagnosis was confirmed by lung biopsy. All horses died or had to be euthanised despite treatment. Two horses (from Austria) were diagnosed with EMPF post mortem. They not only had EMPF but also concurrent other diseases which seemed to be associated with immunosuppression. Three horses showed the discrete form and two horses the diffuse form of EMPF. EHV-5 DNA was identified in lung tissue of all horses by PCR.
Az Egészségügyi Világszervezet és az Európa Tanács javaslatára folyamatosan mérik, illetve becsülik Európa légszennyezettségét, ezen belül a 10 és a 2,5 mikronnál kisebb szemcseméretű szállópor-koncentrációt. A 2,5 mikronnál kisebb szemcseméretű, különösen káros hatású szennyezettség kimagasló Közép- és Kelet-Európában, ezen belül főként Magyarország középső és keleti területein. Epidemiológiai elemzések szerint a 2,5 mikronnál kisebb részecskekoncentráció egyértelmű összefüggést mutat a cardiopulmonalis megbetegedések és a tüdőrák incidenciájával. A hazai levegő szennyezettsége is hozzájárulhat ahhoz, hogy Magyarországon a népességszám figyelembevétele után is másfél-kétszer nagyobb a cardiopulmonalis és tüdőrák-mortalitással kapcsolatos életévveszteség, mint például az egyébként hasonló történelmi-gazdasági adottságokkal bíró Szlovákiában vagy Csehországban. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 285–288.
Authors:Ljiljana Kuruca, Aleksandra Uzelac, Ivana Klun, Vesna Lalošević, and Olgica Djurković-Djaković
Slany , M. , Reslova , N. , Babak , V. and Lorencova , A. ( 2016 ): Molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in pork meat from different production systems in theCzechRepublic . Int. J. Food Microbiol. 238 , 252 – 255