This study attempts to determine the common features and differences between the Latin language of the inscriptions of Aquincum, Salona, Aquileia and the provincial countries of Pannonia Inferior, Dalmatia and Venetia et Histria, compared with each other and the rest of the Latin speaking provinces of the Roman empire, and we intend to demonstrate whether a regional dialect area over the Alps–Danube–Adria region of the Roman empire existed, a hypothesis suggested by József Herman. For our research, we use all relevant linguistic data from the Computerized Historical Linguistic Database of Latin Inscriptions of the Imperial Age. We will examine the relative distribution of diverse types of non-standard data found in the inscriptions, contrasting the linguistic phenomena of an earlier period with a later stage of Vulgar Latin. The focus of our analysis will be on the changes in the vowel system and the grammatical cases between the two chronological periods within each of the three examined cities. If we succeed in identifying similar tendencies in the Vulgar Latin of these three cities, the shared linguistic phenomena may suggest the existence of a regional variant of Latin in the Alps–Danube–Adria region.
song translation and dubbing, as well as work on musicology, film studies, and literature studies, to develop an analytical model for animated musical films. This model, the triangle of aspects ( Reus 2017 ), allows researchers to generate a
Next to his signature, Viennese painter Johann Ignaz Cimbal often added a peculiar sign in his frescoes and oils. It is a combination of letters, appearing in a different form in each of the studied cases (Zalaegerszeg, Oberlaa, Zwettl, Peremarton, Tornyiszentmiklós, Nagykároly [ Carei]), which – and the poor state of the works – make the identification of the letters difficult. In most cases the sign reads VSG, so it is not the initials of the painter.
In some Cimbal works the three letters also appear with iconographic meaning. On the picture of the King Saint Stephen side altar in the parish church of Tornyiszentmiklós the letters shining in the halo around the Holy Cross were identified as VSG earlier and decoded as “Vera Sacra Crux”. However, it is more likely that this abbreviation hides the same meaning as the monograms next to Cimbal’s signatures.
Guidance to the elucidation of the monogram was provided by the ceiling fresco in the southern vestry-room of Székesfehérvár cathedral. The clearly readable VSG abbreviation appears in the corners of the triangle symbolizing the Holy Trinity, which leaves no doubt that it is in connection of the Holy Trinity. The most obvious explanation is the letters being the initials of the German words for the three divine entities, Vater, Sohn and [Heiliger] Geist.
The attribution of the picture (Maria Immaculata) on the high altar of the parish church of Sárospatak to Cimbal was suggested on the basis of this motif, here in three corners of a triangular aureole around the Ark of Covenant. The attribution is also confirmed by style critical analyses. (Analogous are Cimbal’s Immaculata figures in Zalaeregszeg, Tornyiszentmiklós and Székesfehérvár.)
The abbreviation alluding to the Holy Trinity, which is perfectly embedded in the iconographic fabric of some paintings, was also used by Cimbal independently of the theme, attached to his name. Inserting a sign referring to the Holy Trinity above his name must have been a religious gesture. Having completed a picture, the painter crossed himself, as it were, offering his work to God. He sealed his offering with the mysterious sign of God “in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost”. (A similar religious gesture must underlie the signature 70 of an early Cimbal work, the Saint Anne altar picture in Vienna’s Barmherzigenkirche. The abbreviation “Zimbal i. VR” is traditionally interpreted as “In veneratione” with the explanation that the painter made the picture as a votive offering.) Cimbal always created a new composition out of the three letters, so it cannot have been his aim to make a recognizable constant “trade-mark”. (For this purpose he used his name with the customary addition “invenit et pinxit”.) The linking of the three letters is not just a customary formal solution as in monograms, but it has a meaning: it symbolizes the unity of the three divine persons, just as the circle in the triangle in Székesfehérvár.
An extremely expressive iconographic solution needs special mention, applied almost to each of his depictions of the Holy Trinity in Hungary. It is the sceptre held by the three coeternal persons (hence it has extreme length). As it occurs so frequently, it cannot be part of an occasional client’s wish but much rather it is the painter’s invention. Perhaps a comprehensive examination of the entire oeuvre will discover further examples in support of the author’s hypothesis that the Holy Trinity was a particularly favourite theme of Cimbal. It was again his personal devotion that led him to use the Holy Trinity monogram.
The motivation behind commissions for religious art works in the period was first of all the client’s personal religiosity. The religious motifs of the artists can usually only be inferred from indirect data and in connection with few works. One such sign is that for the duration of painting the frescoes Franz Anton Maulbertsch joined the Scapular Confraternity of Székesfehérvár, while the group portrait on the organ loft of Sümeg permits the assumption that he took part in the devotions of the Angelic Society founded by bishop Márton Padányi Biró. His pupil Johannes Pöckel who settled in Sümeg was a member of the local Confraternity of the Cord. Unfortunately, no information to this effect is known about Cimbal.
His signature and Holy Trinity monogram testify that not only the client but also the painter offered his work to God.
Triangle . Partisan Review 33 : 586 ‒ 595 .
Lysaght , Patricia (ed) 2012 Time for Food. Everyday Food and Changing Meal Habits in a Global Perspective . Åbo : Åbo Akademi University Press .
Lupton , Deborah 1998 Food, the Body and the
rhythm specifically indicates a march, while the Turkish style is strengthened by the strident, clanging effect of the piccolo, triangle, cymbals and bass drum. The Janissary chorus had been foreshadowed by a Marcia, surviving only in a score sent to
. For example, he omitted piccolo flute, drum and triangle several times (such as in the Prelude and in no. 6), and even deleted the wind band when this ensemble reinforces the orchestra, as in no. 2. Evidently, these instrumental alterations entailed
decade and in the early 90s, one can observe a point of view perpetually questioning the individual's existential situation. Szakítások [Breakups] (1989) introduces the story of a love triangle into a moral parable of clashing ways of living. In
in the consonant system of Pannonia Inferior, Dalmatia and Venetia et Histria. Graeco-Latina Brunensia 22.2 (2017) 165-181 and Gonda, A.: The Aquincum-Salona-Aquileia Triangle: Latin language in the Alps-Danube-Adria region. Acta Antiqua Hung. 57
Fig. 9.3 (standing wave, triangle filled with diagonal lines?, with a lattice pattern below) is unclear. Sometimes the ornaments are arranged in bands (around 3 pieces). We find these mostly on the shoulders of biconical bowls and jugs. More commonly
dot circles on the tops of the triangles. Textile rusted onto the anklet. Diam.=9 cm. ( Fig. 17.8 ) (13) A damaged bronze anklet above the left ankle. It is hollow, hooked, the terminal is broken, textile rusted onto the body in broadband. One