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In this study, two bacilli strains, namely TN51 and TN69, previously isolated from Thua Nao, a Thai traditional fermented soybean, were studied in terms of their phenotypic and biochemical properties. Initially, both strains were subjected to morphological determination and a series of biochemical tests. Both were Gram-positive, endosporeforming bacilli. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the identities of strains TN51 and TN69 were confirmed as Bacillus subtilis and B. cereus, respectively. In addition, these two strains were also assessed for their antibiogram profiles. It was found that both strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin and resistant to ampicillin and intermediately susceptible to bacitracin.

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The aims of this study were to isolate LAB from Thai plant-derived foods and beverages and to examine in vitro probiotic properties including b-glucosidase enzyme activity. Lactobacillus plantarum SC 359 selected from Thai pickled soybean was significantly (P<0.05) the best to perform β-glucosidase enzyme activity (0.396 U ml−1 at 18 h of incubation) out of the 227 tested strains. The strain survived in 0.30% (w/v) bile salt and had high tolerance to acidic pH with survival rates at a 2 h period of 72.24%, 85.52%, 92.64%, and 93.38% at pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0, respectively. The SC 359 strain showed proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Moreover, the selected strain displayed strong antagonistic activities against Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella Typhi, Shigella sonnei and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The strain was susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, rifampicin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin. In addition, the selected strain significantly inhibited the adherence to Caco-2 cells of E. coli, S. Typhi and Sh. sonnei (P<0.05) by 33.50 to 73.37%. The strain could obstruct the adherences of pathogens by elimination, competition, and displacement with pathogen adherences 33.62–53.92%, 26.63–59.23%, and 49.41–66.50%, respectively. Based on the results, the selected strain could be applied as functional starter for Thai fermented plant-derived foods and beverages.

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supernatant was measured. S. aureus incubated with PBS alone and with vancomycin was used as control. 1.7 Potassium (K + ) and protein leakages The potassium and protein leakages were performed according to the method of Akinpelu and co-workers (2015). S

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. De Vuyst , L. , Foulquie , M.R. & Revets , H. ( 2003 ). Screening for enterocins and detection of hemolysin and vancomycin resistance in Enterococci of different origins . Int. J. Food Microbiol. , 84 , 299 – 318

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with 4 mg of ciprofloxacin and 20 g of sorbitol ( Bujalance et al., 2006 ). Viable counts of L. fermentum were determined on MRS agar with vancomycin (20 mg L −1 ) ( Coeuret et al., 2003 ). Inoculated plates in duplicate were incubated under anaerobic

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