Continuous measurements of concentrations of radon and radon decay products, and equilibrium factor were carried out in the indoor air of 12 schools at the beginning of 2000. Average values of the parameters measured, obtained during working time only and during the whole period, were compared and applied to calculate exposure of a person breathing in this air. Results of short-term continuous measurements are proposed to be used to correct the exposure, generally based on the radon concentration obtained by etched track detectors, and the justification of applying this procedure is discussed.
The problem of the actual rock mass temperature poses considerable difficulties in practical mining engineering. So far, measurements have been made with the use of thermistor thermometers. These do not provide infallible data on temperature, particular as concerns a certain distance from a rib into the rock mass, and they do not allow continuous data logging. Accordingly, a device has been designed and made for measuring the rock mass temperature, together with a thermal probe.
Authors:Tadeusz Przylibski, Jakub Bartak, Elżbieta Kochowska, Lidia Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Krzysztof Kozak, and Jadwiga Mazur
The article presents new Polish probes SRDN-3, developed at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw, equipped
with a semi-conductor detector used for continuous measurements of 222Rn activity concentration. Due to a relatively high lower detection limit, the device is dedicated for use in underground
spaces—caves, adits, mines, tourist routes in strongholds, pyramids, etc. Its structure allows for difficult conditions in
which the device is transported to the measurement site, as well as hard operating conditions caused chiefly by large ambient
relative humidity, reaching up to 100%. The authors present calibration results of these appliances, as well as the results
of their work in a cave and an adit in the Sudetes (SW Poland). After almost 2 years of working in difficult conditions, the
probes displayed high reliability. No defects of the semi-conductor detectors or the electronics were observed, which ensured
problem-free communication of the probe-programmer-PC set. Thanks to this, the authors have a 2 year stock of data, recorded
hourly by five probes, at their disposal. The only element that did not withstand the test of extreme operating conditions
was one of the combined relative humidity and temperature sensors. No powering problems were observed either, and the batteries
were replaced once a year, before the winter season. Also the programmer functioned faultlessly, enabling data transmission
to a PC, which, being much more sensitive to operating conditions, had been placed away from the site of probe exposure. After
using more sensitive temperature, relative humidity and pressure sensors, SRDN-3 probes will certainly prove an excellent
tool for microclimate measurements (including measurement of air-atmosphere exchange) in caves and other underground sites.
Even nowadays they are already a satisfactory tool for monitoring 222Rn concentration in underground spaces.
Authors:Attila Nemes, I. Czinkota, Gy. Czinkota, and et al.
Soil texture is an
important input parameter for many soil hydraulic pedotransfer functions (PTFs)
of the day. Common soil particle-size classes are required to be able to
uniformly determine the texture of soils. However, it is not always possible -
due to different national classification systems - and much valuable
information is disregarded while either deriving or applying PTFs.
to get common particle-size class information is to interpolate the
particle-size distribution (PSD) curve. Advanced interpolation solutions are
becoming available, but there is always uncertainty associated with these
techniques. Another possibility is to measure all PSD curves in such a way that
it is compatible to the commonly used classification systems.
A new automated measurement
technique is introduced that can easily provide PSD data compatible to any (and
all) of the existing national and international classification systems at the
same time, without the burden of extra labour. A computerized measurement
system has been developed to record density changes in a settling-tube system
in any discretional (small) time steps, which in turn allows the derivation of
a quasi-continuous PSD curve. The measurement is based on areometry
(Stokes-law), thus the system is compatible to the most commonly applied
settling-tube measurements. The new evaluation method of measured values takes
into consideration the density changes along the areometer-body so it avoids
the problem of reference point determination. The theory and setup of the
system are explained and measurement examples are given. The presented
comparative measurements show good correspondence with conventional
settling-tube results, and the reproducibility of the measurement shows to be
very high. This technique does not require more sample preparation than past
methods. The automated reading requires less manpower to perform the
measurement - which also reduces human error sources. However, it provides very
detailed PSD data that has advantages, like revealing multi-modality in the
particle-size distribution or providing data that complies with any of the
Authors:W. Zahorowski, S. Whittlestone, and J. James
A six month survey of radon, radon progeny and condensation nuclei (CN) has been conducted in an Australian tourist cave.
The measurements have been made continuously at two sites within the cave: one a small chamber with a high air exchange rate
close to one entrance and connected to several other entrances by complex passages; the other a large chamber with a low air
exchange rate 1 km from the nearest entrance. The measurements form a basis for evaluation of the accuracy with which dose
due to radon can be determined for different monitoring strategies. It is shown that the estimate of dose based on the measurement
of radon concentration and recommendations in ICPR-65, is low by a factor of 1.3 at the well ventilated site and 1.5 at the
site with a low air exchange rate and low CN. At each site the weekly average equilibrium factor and unattached fraction were
steady, leading to the possibility of establishing a cave system average of these factors. However, given the technical diffuculties
involved, it may not be practicable to make enough unattached fraction measurements to fully represent the cave system. Therefore
it may be necessary to use a conservative approach to the dosimetry and add 50% to values determined by the ICRP-65 conversion
The determination of uranium in solutions and sorbents by measurement of absorption of soft gamma-rays is described. The use of 22 keV gamma-rays of109Cd enbled us to improve the sensitivity of the determination for nearly an order of magnitude when compared to the measurements using241Am source. The application to the continuous measurement of uranium concentration in pilot-plant streams and of concentration profiles of uranium sorbed on columns of ion exchangers is described.
Authors:D. Desideri, C. Roselli, L. Feduzi, and M. Assunta Meli
Meteorological and radon concentration data referring to a measurement campaign carried out in Urbino, Central Italy, are
reported and discussed. This study presents a method allowing monitoring of the vertical atmospheric stability using continuous
measurements of radon gas near ground. In particular radon evidences the presence of temperature inversion such as the formation
of the nocturnal stable layer and gives information on the vertical turbulence and the motion of air masses. This technique
is very useful in describing the temporal evolution of the pollutants in the atmosphere.
Authors:K. Yamazaki, S. Tonouchi, and T. Hashimoto
Since October 1983, the Niigata Prefectural Government has been carrying out the continuous measurements of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the environment around the Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power station by environmental radiation monitoring telemetry system. Continuous measurements of gamma-ray spectra have been established since April 1996. As a result, the contribution of various radionuclides has been gradually clarified in the variations of the gamma-ray dose rate. In this paper, the energy spectrum of the incident gamma-ray to NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was obtained by the unfolding method using a response matrix, and the variations of the energy spectrum observed in the precipitation and snow were investigated. The increase in the dose rate in precipitation originated from the increase in the flux density of gamma-ray from 214Bi and 214Pb, daughter nuclide of 222Rn, which fell down with the precipitation. On the other hand, the reduction in the dose rate in the snowy period was confirmed due to the shielding effect of a part of gamma-rays from the natural radioactive nuclides by the snow layer, in coincidence with the decrease of the flux density in 40K and 208Tl.
Theoretical and experimental analysis of the diaphragm diffusion method for study of the state of trace elements in aqueous
solutions is presented. It is shown that the method has substantial advantages over other diffusion methods and over conventional
use of dialysis, particularly when nucleopore or other membranes with small internal surface area are employed. These advantages
include rather short experimental time, not exceeding tens of minutes, lower adsorption losses and lower shift of equilibria
among various forms of the trace element studied. A new method for the continuous measurement of and for the evaluation of
diffusion is suggested, which enables calculation of the abundance of colloidal forms of the element. Verification of the
method is carried out for a particular case using trace radiocerium.
Theoretical and experimental analysis of the open-ended capillary diffusion method for study of the state of trace elements
in aqueous solutions is presented. It is shown by theoretical considerations that the use of the discontinuous capillary method
of diffusion and the evaluation of single measurements using the classical Anderson-Saddington equation yields incorrect diffusion
coefficients if two or more forms of the trace element with significantly different diffusion characteristics are simultaneously
present in the solution. A new method for the evaluation of diffusion is suggested, which enables calculation of the abundance
of two different forms of a trace element. The method employs a continuous measurement of diffusion combined with computer
analysis of the data obtained. Verification of the method is carried out for a particular case using trace radiocerium. The
effect of adsorption on the diffusion measurement and interpretation is discussed.