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Fauna (last part), poisons and antidote, arms used by Indians for hunting and fishing . This article is a transcript and French translation of the last four chapters (7 to 10) of Book 2 of the Latin manuscript by the Jesuit F. X. Eder on the missions or reductions in the Amerindian nations of the Moxos and Baures. It is the continuation of the first six articles on the Jesuit missions in the now-Bolivian Amazon basin in the 18th century , entitled:

  1. 1. Lima, Peru, and their inhabitants in the 18th century.
  2. 2. Jesuit missions in the now-Bolivian Amazon basin in the 18th century.
  3. 3. Quality of the soil and description of the Indians.
  4. 4. Constructive works, beliefs and superstitions of the Indians, and how to convince them to join a reduction.
  5. 5. Trees, fruits, plants and mammals.
  6. 6. Birds, hunting, crocodiles, dolphins, fishes and fishing.

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, C.L. , Palomera , I. and Tudela , S . 2006 . Comparing trophic flows and fishing impacts of a NW Mediterranean ecosystem with coastal upwelling systems by means of standardized models and indicators . Ecol. Model. 198 : 53 – 70

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. Chen X. , de’Medici T. ( 2012 ), From a fishing village via an instant city to a secondary global city: The “Miracle” and growth pains of Shenzhen special economic zone in China . In: Chen X. , Kanna A. (eds

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Fishing-ground landmarks (Fischwassergrenzsteine = FWGS) illustrated by some objects from the Eferding Basin area in Upper Austria . The following discussion is based on three FWGSs found on the river-banks of the Upper Austrian Danube. Setting and marking the limits for fishing-grounds as such was in practice for centuries. There were many reasons to determine the business, but the principal factor was the specific environment-bound water current. Two of the marking stones presented belong to the category of topographic “conspicuity”. In this case conspicuous natural stones either in the river-bed or on the river-bank were used as a mark. The third type of “memorial” was a handmade marking stone.All three objects ought to be directly considered within the history of “professional fishing”, my present special field of study. On the one hand, the fishers marked out their grounds, on the other hand, the marking consequently also led to frequent arguments. That is why the student gains valuable information from the respective legal documents in the archives concerning persons, fishing tools, water condition, and catch.

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Choice of a spouse, feasts and games, meals, food and drink, handicraft and arts . This article is a transcript and French translation of the first five chapters of Book 3 of the Latin manuscript by the Jesuit F. X. Eder on the missions or reductions in the Amerindian nations of the Moxos and Baures. It is the continuation of the first seven articles on the Jesuit missions in the now-Bolivian Amazon basin in the 18th century , entitled:

  1. 1. Lima, Peru, and their inhabitants in the 18th century.
  2. 2. Jesuit missions in the now Bolivian Amazon basin in the 18th century.
  3. 3. Quality of the soil and description of the Indians.
  4. 4. Constructive works, belief and superstitions of the Indians, and how to convince them to join a reduction.
  5. 5. Trees, fruits, plants and mammals.
  6. 6. Birds, hunting, crocodiles, dolphins, fishes and fishing.
  7. 7. Fauna (last part), poisons and antidote, arms used by Indians for hunting and fishing.

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With roots in the Old World and fertile ground in the New World, the tall tale ourished in America, especially within the boasting, expansive atmosphere of the American frontier (Burrison 1991: 6–7). Hunting, fishing, weather, domestic life, and agriculture were popular topics, and opportunities for artful exaggeration were numerous. This paper examines the tall tale as artistic folk humor in which the narrative is carefully constructed and performed for best effect. Field recordings, printed texts, and folklore-archive texts will provide examples for analysis. Finally, examples of tall-tale postcards add a visual dimension to the genre.

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Indian way of life and vision of the world, life in the reductions and a response to the critics . This last article is a transcript and French translation of the last seven chapters (6 to 12) of Book 3 of the Latin manuscript by the Jesuit F. X. Eder on the missions or reductions in the Amerindian nations of the Moxos and Baures. It is the continuation of the first eight articles on the Jesuit missions in the now Bolivian Amazon basin in the 18th century , entitled:

  1. 1. Lima, Peru, and their inhabitants in the 18th century.
  2. 2. Jesuit missions in the now Bolivian Amazon basin in the 18th century.
  3. 3. Quality of the soil and description of the Indians.
  4. 4. Constructive works, beliefs and superstitions of the Indians, and how to convince them to join a reduction.
  5. 5. Trees, fruits, plants and mammals.
  6. 6. Birds, hunting, crocodiles, dolphins, fishes and fishing.
  7. 7 Fauna (last part), poisons and antidote, arms used by Indians for hunting and fishing.
  8. 8. Choice of a spouse, feasts and games, meals, food and drink, handicraft and arts.

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Birds, hunting, crocodiles, dolphins, fishes and fishing . This article is a transcript and French translation of four chapters (3 to 6) of Book 2 of the Latin manuscript by the Jesuit F. X. Eder on the missions or reductions in the Amerindian nations of the Moxos and Baures. It is the continuation of the five first articles on the Jesuit missions in the now Bolivian Amazon basin in the 18th century , entitled:

  1. 1. Lima, Peru, and their inhabitants in the 18th century.
  2. 2. Jesuit missions in the now Bolivian Amazon basin in the 18th century.
  3. 3. Quality of the soil and description of the Indians.
  4. 4. Constructive works, believes and superstitions of the Indians, and how to convince them of joining a reduction.
  5. 5. Trees, fruits, plants and mammals.

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Community Ecology
Authors: Á. Móréh, F. Jordán, A. Szilágyi, and I. Scheuring

There is increasing evidence that regime shifts occur at several scales in ecosystems (from the spatiotemporal alternation of two species to large-scale, ecosystem-level rearrangements). Yet, the theoretical background for understanding these changes is far from clear. Since fishing down in marine ecosystems is well-documented trend, and its top-down cascading effects in food webs have been richly documented, it is a current question whether overfishing, in general, can also influence regime shifts at lower levels. We model simple marine ecosystems by dynamical food webs and investigate the probability of regime shifts emerging among primary consumers. We considered cases where only one of the primary consumers is persistent in the stationary state. By perturbing the death rates in the food web, we studied the circumstances when the previously persistent primary producer is indirectly changed by the previously non-persistent one. Whether and how regime shifts (e.g., change in primary consumers) can occur depends on (1) food web topology (presence of top-predator and alternative producer), (2) the relative strength of perturbation of primary consumers’ death rates, and (3) the dynamical parameters of the recovering consumer. We found that overfishing, food web topology and dynamical parameters together determine the probability of regime shifts. Thus, integrative and complex models are needed in multispecies fisheries.

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The contamination level of oxbows depends on both natural and anthropogenic effects. The aim of our study was to identify those abiotic and biotic factors that determine the contamination level of oxbows. The effect of anthropogenic activities, seasonality, and vegetation types was studied on the contamination level of surface water of oxbows. The following chemical variables were measured: suspended solid, ammonium, nitrate, chlorophyll-a, Al, Ba, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn from eight oxbows from 2013 summer to 2014 autumn in the Upper Tisza region in Eastern Hungary. Three of the studied oxbows were protected, four oxbows were used for fishing and one oxbow was contaminated with wastewater. Our findings revealed that anthropogenic activities had remarkable effect on the contamination level of oxbows. Seasonality also influenced the contamination level, except the concentration of suspended solid, chlorophyll-a and manganese. Significant differences were found among vegetation types for the concentration of suspended solids, aluminium, iron, manganese and lead. The high level of iron concentration was not explained by the anthropogenic activities, suggesting that the quality of oxbows depends on both natural and anthropogenic effects.

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