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.S. 2003. Physicochemical properties and end-use quality of wheat starch as a function of waxy protein alleles. J. Cereal Sci. 37 :195–204. Gaines C.S. Physicochemical properties and

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: D. Horvat, N. Ðukić, D. Magdić, J. Mastilović, G. Šimić, A. Torbica, and D. Živančev

Glutenin polymers composed of HMW and LMW subunits are important contributors to the wheat end-use properties. Twenty-six winter wheat cultivars differing in bread processing quality were collected at the experimental fields of the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia and Institute of the Field and Vegetable Crops Novi Sad, Serbia, in 2008/2009 season. The HMW glutenins composition and glutenin proteins content were determined by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, respectively, with aim to determine the relationship between glutenin protein fractions and wheat quality properties. Significant differences were found between Croatian and Serbian cultivars in several quality attributes (GI, WA, DDT, DS and R/EXT) as well as in the content of total glutenins and LMW glutenins and GLI/GLU ratio. The dominant HMW subunits in analyzed cultivars were 2*, 7 + 9/7 + 8 and 5 + 10. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the presence of association between HMW glutenins composition and GI, dough E, R and R/EXT, while the glutenins quantitative data showed pronounced relation with P, DDT, DS, E, R and R/EXT. GLI/GLU ratio had the opposite effect on these parameters.

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. Li , Y. , Wu , Y. , Hernandez-Espinosa , N. , Peña , R.J. 2013 . The influence of drought and heat stress on the expression of end-use quality parameters of common wheat . J. Cereal Sci. 57 : 73 – 78

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This study aimed to clarify the genetic mechanisms behind wheat flour color. Flour colorrelated traits (L*, a*, and b*) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity are important parameters that influence the end-use quality of wheat. Dissecting the genetic bases and exploring important chromosomal loci of these traits are extremely important for improving wheat quality. The diverse panel of 205 elite wheat varieties (lines) was genotyped using a highdensity Illumina iSelect 90K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assay to disclose the genetic mechanism of flour color-related traits and PPO activity. In 2 different environments and their mean values (MV), 28, 30, 24, and 12 marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified for L*, a*, b* traits, and PPO activity, respectively. A single locus could explain from 5.52% to 20.01% of the phenotypic variation for all analyzed traits. Among them, 5 highly significant SNPs (P ≤ 0.0001), 11 stable SNPs (detected in all environments) and 25 multitrait MTAs were identified. Especially, BS00000020_51 showed pleiotropic effects on L*, a*, and b*, and was detected in all environments with the highest phenotypic contribution rates. Furthermore, this SNP was also found to be co-associated with wheat grain hardness, ash content, and pasting temperature of starch in previous studies. The identification of these significantly associated SNPs is helpful in revealing the genetic mechanisms of wheat colorrelated traits, and also provides a reference for follow-up molecular marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding.

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The mixograph performs certain rheological measurements during dough mixing and is a good predictor of wheat end-use quality. The aim of this study was to determine the expression and the heritability of mixing characteristics measured with Mixsmart® software and some quality characteristics in hard red spring wheat parents and their F1 progeny. Six parents varying in midline peak time and envelope peak time were crossed in a half diallel design. Parents and progeny were planted in three different environments. General combining ability (GCA) was a significant source of variation for the measured characteristics, and parents differed widely in terms of GCA effects. Midline-development time, -peak integral and -peak time showed high narrow sense heritability. Envelope peak-integral and -tail width displayed high narrow sense heritability for some, but not all locations. High GCA:SCA (specific combining ability) ratios indicated the prevalence of additive gene effects for midline-development time, -peak integral and -peak time, indicating that these characteristics are largely genetically determined, and that selection for them should lead to genetic gain.

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Four amphiploid lines (SHW) based on T. monococcum (Tm) and T. boeoticum (Tb) were crossed to T. durum varieties to generate 13 combinations. Field germination and winter survival of hybrid plants in F2 were assessed. Among all crosses, those with SHW8A-Tb and SHW9A-Tm showed highest field germination but with different degrees of spike fragility. The variation on seed number and weight per main spike was studied in F4–6 from SHW8ATb/ Progres and SHW5A-Tb/Severina crosses after individual selection for these traits. Ten lines with durum phenotype from the former and three genotypes with dicoccum plant shape from the latter cross were developed. SDS-PAGE indicated the presence of HMW-GS 1Ax2*+1Aynull subunits in four lines, among which 1Ax2* was inherited from T. boeoticum acc.110 through SHW8A-Tb. Most of the selected genotypes possessed γ-gliadin45, which was relating to good end-use quality. Powdery mildew testing showed that all progenies resulted from the SHW8A-Tb/Progres were susceptible to 12 races of the pathogen, while three lines derived from the SHW5A-Tb/Severina cross behaved differently: G32 expressed resistance to six, G33 to 2, and G34 to 5 races. The selected genotypes from crosses involving SHW with T. boeoticum exhibited good breeding performance compared to tetraploid wheat parents, and might be of breeding interest to further research.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: K. Tremmel-Bede, P. Mikó, M. Megyeri, G. Kovács, S. Howlett, B. Pearce, M. Wolfe, F. Löschenberger, B. Lorentz, L. Láng, Z. Bedő, and M. Rakszegi

Six cropping populations, three variety mixtures and one diversity population were developed from winter wheat varieties and studied for physical, compositional and end-use quality traits for three years (2011–2013) under different European climatic and management conditions in order to study the stability of these traits resulted by the genetic diversity. The beneficial compositional and nutritional properties of the populations were assessed, while variation and stability of the traits were analysed statistically. No significant differences were found among the populations in low-input and organic management farming systems in the physical, compositional and processing properties, but there was a difference in the stability of these traits. Most of the populations showed higher stability than the control wheat variety, and populations developed earlier had higher stability than those developed later. Furthermore, some populations were found to be especially unstable for some traits at certain sites (mostly at Austrian, Swiss and UK organic sites). Protein content of the populations was high (13.0–14.7%) without significant difference among them, but there was significant variation in their gluten content (28–36%) and arabinoxylan content (14.6–20.3 mg/g). The most outstanding population for both protein and arabinoxylan content was a Hungarian cropping population named ELIT-CCP. It was concluded that the diversity found in the mixtures and CCPs have stabilizing effect on the quality parameters, but a higher stability was observed under low-input than under organic conditions. These results could be beneficial not only for breeders but also for the consumers in the long run.

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Seventy-six promising bread winter wheat lines were investigated in relation to the allelic composition of grain storage proteins. The aim of the study was: i) to find out a possible relation between wheat quality and the separate low molecular loci and ii) to examine the potential of some of the existing Glu-A3 alleles to increase the quality. Five indices were investigated that covered almost all aspects of grain quality: sedimentation value, wet gluten content, dough stability, bread volume, quality index and valorimeter. The samples for quality analysis were from a 3-year period of investigation. Different statistical approaches were used to study the influence of Glu-A3 on the level of the indices. The LMW-GS were determined by SDS-PAGE (Payne et al. 1980). It was determined that locus Glu-A3 had the strongest influence on quality among the loci, that determine the low molecular glutenins. The Glu-A3 alleles influenced the end-use quality irrespective of the HMW-GS and LMW-GS composition background against which their effect was expressed. There were important variations among the separate alleles of Glu-A3 locus for their direct effect on end-used quality. Glu-A3 f had strong positive effect on the end-use quality against the background of all HMW combinations. Glu-A3 b had a similar positive effect. The Glu-A3 b allele was connected with high quality in wheat but its effect was weaker than that of Glu-A3 f and was not significant for some of the investigated indices.

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Seventy-three common winter wheat varieties developed throughout the breeding history of the DAI were investigated for their diversity of allelic variants on storage proteins component composition in grain. The high- and low molecular weight protein structures were determined by the widely used SDS-PAGE method of Payne et al. (1980). The ratio between the individual alleles on the loci of high and low molecular weight glutenin was analyzed. The change in the HMW-score was followed according to the period when the respective varieties were developed. The configuration Glu-A1 b , GluB1 c , Glu-D1 d , which was established in about 45% of the investigated genotypes, was most frequent in the high-molecular variants of glutenin. Concerning the low-molecular weight glutenins in 21 out of the 73 investigated varieties, the combination Glu-A3 c , Glu-B3 b , Glu-D3 c was observed; it coincided with the spectrum of the widely used variety Bezostaya 1. Highest diversity was established in the allelic variants of Glu-A3, Glu-B3 , in which 6 and 5 alleles, respectively, were observed. The quality of the varieties developed at DAI was relatively high (score 8.1). About a quarter of them are with high end-use quality confirmed in production. This is mainly due to the concentration of “strong” positive alleles in glutenin as a result from the intensive use of parents directly or indirectly related to Bezostaya 1, which lead to decrease of the percent of Glu-B1a (2 + 12). Quality should be further increased by additional diversity of combinations between “possitive” as effect on end-use grain quality alleles. Concerning HMW loci to keep of high grain end-use quality, it is necessary to maintain the status of Glu-A1b (2*), as well as of Glu-D1d (5 + 10).

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. Genomic selection for processing and end-use quality traits in the CIMMYT spring bread wheat breeding program . Plant Genome 9 : 1 – 12 . Bell , B.M. , Chamberlain , N. , Collins , T

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