Nem helyes azt elvárni az iskoláktól, hogy minden létező problémára ők készítsék
fel a gyerekeket. A tanulmány legfőbb mondanivalója az, hogy a 6–14 éves
korosztálynak egy olyan élet- és viselkedésstratégiát kell megtanítani, amely
fontos területeken ellentmond a humán evolúció évezredek során kialakult
logikájának. A túlélés genetikai programja a rövid távú optimalizálásra
ösztönöz. A hosszú élet, az egészséges öregkor viszont azt feltételezi, hogy az
emberek ellenállnak a rövid távú örömforrásoknak. A jó hír az, hogy a bizalom,
az önkontroll, az akaraterő fejlesztése tanítható – erre nyilvánvalóan a
mélyszegénységben élő családok gyermekeinek van a legnagyobb szükségük. Ez
kellene, hogy legyen az iskolai prevenciós programok elsőszámú célja.
M., Meise, U., Roskar, S., Sarchiapone, M., Schmidtke, A., Värnik, A. &
Bramesfeld, A. (2009) Optimizing Suicide Prevention Programs and Their
Implementation in Europe (OSPI Europe): An Evidence-based Multi
-related efficacy and anxiety have a significant influence on its application. As for teachers’ sense of efficacy and anxiety, Dunn et al. (2013) aimed to optimize such aspects by creating the well-established Data-Driven Decision-Making Efficacy and Anxiety
Authors:Togtokhmaa Zagir and Kinga Magdolna Mandel
development 2) Personalization ensure individual learners are supported to optimize progression and achievement 3) Metacognition initiate and monitor learning and teaching strategies that enable effective individual learning 4) Teaching and learning methods
Authors:Antoci Diana, Mislitchi Valentina, and Diacon Maria
and experimental foundation of the mentoring optimization process focused on combating violent and aggressive behaviour during of preadolescence and adolescence with the limits of 13–17 years. Presentation of the research methods: theoretical
. , Salimon , A. I. , Korsunsky , A. M. , & Denisov , A. A. ( 2020 ). Fast mass-production of medical safety shields under COVID-19 quarantine: Optimizing the use of university fabrication facilities and volunteer labor . International Journal of
Since Ancient Rome, presumption has occupied a strong position in jurisprudence. It is considered a legal category, a certain device of legal technique, which provides an opportunity to move from a known fact and its relation to other facts to an implied or supposed ‘fact’ when there is no or limited knowledge. In practice the use of presumptions helps to shorten the span of time used to solve a particular case. In such a way it saves means for the state and all the parties involved in legal procedure, and draws less on intellectual resources of participants involved in legal proceedings.
Variety and prevalence of presumptions is based on three elements: social policy of the state, aspiration to optimize the law and aspiration to provide flexibility, consistency and clarity in legal relations. In nowadays jurisprudence, classification of presumptions into legal (in the narrow sense) and factual, deniable and undeniable ones are the most important because any legal presumption, in the broad sense, causes certain procedural consequences. Usually one of procedural parties gets relief from the burden of proof and upon the other one the burden is transferred (praesumptio iuris et de iure is an exception to this rule). Different presumptions serve different purposes, e.g. helping to go from a well-known fact to a supposedly known fact or to balance various potentials (opportunities) of the parties to the process in order to make them as equal as possible. This is due to the fact that the same term is used for various elements of legal technique that are of different origin and form.
However, not all legal categories which fall under the term of ‘presumption’ can be recognised as being proper presumptions. In this article, while proceeding with the study of the conception of presumption,1 the meaning of presumptions is revealed, the way they are expressed is presented and, with the help of mathematical argumentation, an attempt is made to explain why iuris et de iure forms of presumptions should not fall under the category of legal presumptions.
Authors:Franz Rauch, Karen Ziener, and Diana Radman
increased integration of health education (e.g., availability of healthy foods), ecological and social issues in different subjects (e.g., periodical topics), and measures for energy optimization of the school. Participation in ECOLOG results in an
within and of hierarchies, arguing that informal networks of small groups become necessary to optimize organizational problem-solving processes, which can no longer be performed by hierarchical structures.
According to Castells’ ( 2000 ) notion