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Authors: R. Juhász, K. Horváth, I. Dalmadi, É. Andrássy, A. Salgó and J. Farkas

Effect of 60Co irradiation on wheat and white pepper grains were investigated in this study using Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA), near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Functional properties of wheat and white pepper were affected by irradiation indicated by a decrease in viscosity values. It was caused by changes of starch structure confirmed by the NIR spectra changes between wavelength 1560–1620 nm, which is the vibration of intermolecular hydrogen bonded OH groups in polysaccharides. The radiation used did not cause significant changes in the thermal properties. RVA proved to be useful for screening radiation induced changes in dry commodities of considerable large starch content on the basis of their rheological behaviour.

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Effects of mixed cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Levuline FB — higher ethanol tolerance — and different Kluyveromyces strains — higher inulinase activity — on the production of ethanol from Jerusalem artichoke extract were investigated. Among the investigated strains, combination of S. cerevisiae and K. marxianus strain Y00959 with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation gave the best efficiency (76%) of bioconversion. The optimal ratio of mixed cultures was determined to be 1:1 of K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae. Central composite design (CCD) was adapted to find the optimum initial substrate concentration and inoculum size for the maximal production of ethanol from Jerusalem artichoke juice. The optimum fermentation conditions were found to be 24% (m/w) substrate concentration and 45 OD600nm ml/100 ml inoculum size of mixed culture. Use of these conditions, about 10.67% (v/v) was produced at 148 h of alcoholic fermentation given. Results of this work provide benefits of mixed culture on production of bioethanol from Jerusalem artichoke.

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This paper seeks to address the similarities and differences between HR practices and policies of private and public sector organisations by reporting the results of our analysis based on the CRANET database. In our paper detailed statistical analysis is made for the three geographical subsets (New Public Management Countries, Eastern Europe, and All Other Countries) of the CRANET Survey 2004–2005. In light of CRANET data we review whether public sector reforms driven by radical structural changes, privatisation of certain government functions, or adaptation of New Public Management technologies could have or could not have eliminated the most important distinguishing features of public and private sector organisations in the field of HRM.

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Acute, severe hypovolemia is a medical emergency. Traditional vital sign parameters allow no optimal triage. High predictive power of finger plethysmography-based stroke volume (SV) and pulse pressure (PP) was recently suggested. To assess the performance of the PP and SV parameters, lower body negative pressure of −40 mmHg, than −60 mmHg — corresponding to moderate and severe central hypovolemia — was applied in 22 healthy males (age 35 ± 7 years). Slow breathing induced fluctuations in the above indices, characterized by stroke volume variability (SVV), and pulse pressure variability (PPV), were assessed. Responses in heart rate (HR) and shock index (SI) were also studied. Discriminative capacity of these parameters was characterized by the area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves (AUC).

Results

In comparison of baseline to severe central hypovolemia SV, PP, HR and SI showed good discriminating capacity (AUC 99%, 88%, 87% and 93%, respectively). The discriminating capacity of SVV and PPV was poor (77% and 70%, respectively). In comparison of moderate and severe hypovolemia, the discriminating capacity of the studied parameters was uniformly limited.

Conclusions

Plethysmography-based SV and PP parameters can be used to detect acute severe volume loss. Sensitive parameters discriminating moderate and severe central hypovolemia are still lacking.

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Authors: G. Kovács, J. Schmidt, F. Husvéth, K. Dublecz, L. Wágner and E. Farkas-Zele
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Authors: I. Bata-Vidács, A. Lugasi, J. Farkas, O. Németh and P. Fodor
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Authors: Á. Koncz, L. Mészáros, J. Farkas, K. Pásztor-Huszár, R. Helt and N. Lechner

Thermal and HHP treatments were compared. We established that the applied HHP treatments reduced the total cell count more significantly than thermal treatments. For example, the 10 min 600 MPa/10 min HHP treatment was equivalent to about 10 min thermal treatment at 70 °C. This combination of temperature and time is not used in the pasteurisation practice of the dairy industry. The various thermal treatments reduce the phosphatase enzyme activity to between one-third and one-hundredth of the original activity. The HHP treatments yielded similar results. Six hundred MPa pressure caused 10 to 70% decrease in the enzyme activity, while 700 MPa pressure led to a decrease of one log cycle.In the second year we tried to investigate the kinetics of the effect of HHP treatment. The 5, 10, 20, 40 min holding times were systematically applied in the range of 400 to 700 MPa. According to the results, 600 and 700 MPa HHP treatments effectively assured a decrease in the total cell count and the alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity. No organoleptic changes occurred.

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Experiments were performed to study changes caused by irradiation or high hydrostatic pressure pasteurization of liquid egg white by differential scanning calorimetry, spectrofluorimetry, electronic nose measurements and NIR-spectrometry. The non-thermal pasteurization treatments were also assessed in relation to loss of carotenoid content, and lipid- and cholesterol oxidation of liquid egg yolk. Unlike radiation pasteurization, high pressure processing caused protein denaturation in egg white, which manifested in changes of its DSC-thermogram and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Electronic nose testing showed changes of the head-space volatile composition of egg albumen, particularly as a function of radiation treatment. Both treatments caused changes in the NIR-spectrometric “fingerprint” of the liquid egg white. Various chemometric analyses of the results of the latter instrumental methods, particularly statistical techniques developed by the group of one of the co-authors of this article, demonstrated the potential for detection and characterization of the applied non-thermal processing techniques on liquid egg white. Irradiation induced more carotenoid degradation and lipid oxidation in liquid egg yolk than pressure processing.

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Authors: M. Szalai, J. Szigeti, L. Farkas, L. Varga, A. Réti and E. Zukál

The shelf-lives of major commercial cooked meat products (i.e., Bologna sausage, Italian-type cooked sausage, and cooked ham) packaged under vacuum or modified atmospheres were tested in this study. Samples were taken from commercial meat processing lines, sliced to 1.2 mm thickness and placed overlapped into polypropylene trays sealed with plastic films. The headspace of modified atmosphere packaged formulations consisted of 30% CO2 and 70% N2 or 60% CO2 and 40% N2. The samples thus produced were stored under refrigerated conditions. The values of microbiological, chemical, physical or sensory properties were plotted against storage time, and Gompertz curves were fitted to all time series that changed from an initial to a final value during any period of storage. The influence of headspace CO2 concentration on the properties of sliced cooked meat products varied considerably and, therefore, it was not possible to specify general rules. However, the presence of CO2 in the packaging atmosphere slowed down the rate of microbial growth, thereby delaying the spoilage of meat products. A CO2 level of 60% had beneficial effects on both the microbiological and sensory properties of sliced sausages and cooked ham. It was concluded that cooked meat products packaged under modified atmospheres had a shelf-life of 20 days.

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From the combined phylogenetic analysis of multi-locus sequence data of the Lecanoraceae including two nuclear protein-coding markers (RPB2 and RPB1), the internal transcribed spacer and a fragment of the mitochondrial small subunit, found that the originally monotypic eastern Asian genus Verseghya is positioned within the Verseghya-Lecidella-Pyrrhospora clade of the Lecanoraceae and includes one more taxon Verseghya thysanophora widely distributed in Northern Hemisphere.

The genus Lecidella forming the Lecidella-Glaucomaria subclade within the same Verseghya-Lecidella-Pyrrhospora clade of the Lecanoraceae found to have tendency to be polyphyletic after including the recently described eastern Asian taxon Lecidella mandshurica into phylogenetic analysis of the Lecanoraceae. It is shown that Lecidella mandshurica was previously recorded from China sub Lecidella aff. elaeochroma.

The originally monotypic eastern Asian genus Sedelnikovaea forming a monophyletic branch within the Sedelnikovaea-Lecanoropsis subclade and being in out-position to the Rhizoplaca-Protoparmeliopsis s. str. clade of the Lecanoraceae found to include three more taxa, i.e. Sedelnikovaea marginalis, S. pseudogyrophorica, and S. subdiscrepans.

The Eurasian Protoparmeliopsis bolcana, and the eastern Asian P. kopachevskae, are illustrated for the first time as being positioned within the Protopameliopsis branch of the Lecanoraceae, while the South Korean ‘Protoparmeliopsis’ chejuensis found to be positioned in separate monophyletic branch from all other branches of the Rhizoplaca-Protoparmeliopsis s. l. clade of the Lecanoraceae.

The genus Polyozosia A. Massal. as earlier name for the former Myriolecis branch of the Lecanoraceae is accepted as far the type species of the latter genus, i.e. P. poliophaea, found to be positioned within this branch. The Polyozosia robust monophyletic branch is positioned in the outermost position in the Rhizoplaca-Protoparmeliopsis s. str. clade of the Lecanoraceae.

Position and species content of the accepted genera Glaucomaria, Lecanoropsis, Omphalodina, Polyozosia, and Straminella are discussed in separate nrITS and mtSSU, and combined phylogeny based on concatenated sequences of nrITS, mtSSU, RPB2 and RPB1 genes.

Fourty new combinations are proposed: Glaucomaria bicincta, G. carpinea, G. leptyrodes, G. lojkaeana, G. subcarpinea, G. sulphurea, G. swartzii, G. swartzii subsp. caulescens, G. swartzii subsp. nylanderi, Lecanoropsis anopta, L. macleanii, Omphalodina chrysoleuca, O. huashanensis, O. opiniconensis, O. phaedrophthalma, O. pseudistera, Palicella anakeestiicola, Polyozosia albescens, P. andrewii, P. contractula, P. crenulata, P. dispersa, P. hagenii, P. perpruinosa, P. populicola, P. pruinosa, P. reuteri, P. sambuci, P. semipallida, P. straminea, P. thuleana, Sedelnikovaea marginalis, S. pseudogyrophorica, S. subdiscrepans, Straminella bullata, S. burgaziae, S. conizaeoides, S. densa, S. maheui, S. varia, and Verseghya thysanophora. Validation of one name as Polyozosia perpruinosa Fröberg ex S. Y. Kondr. L. Lőkös et Farkas is also proposed.

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