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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Orsolya Balogh, Hedvig Fébel, Gyula Huszenicza, Margit Kulcsár, Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth, Tamás Endrődi and György Gábor

The aim of this study was to identify relationships among seasonal differences of fertility, metabolic parameters and appearance of irregular luteal forms in high-yielding dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian cows were put on the Provsynch regimen in winter (n = 10) and in summer (n = 10). Blood sampling (starting 35 days post partum) and rectal ultrasound examinations (starting post insemination) were carried out once a week in each examination period. Metabolic [plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and serum beta-carotene] and endocrine parameters [plasma thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and insulin levels] were measured. In summer, two cows were excluded from the study because of metritis and none of the remaining animals became pregnant, but 6 of the 8 cows had irregular luteal forms (ILF) on their ovaries. In winter, one cow was excluded because of metritis and 6 of the 9 cows became pregnant, while 2 of the 3 open cows had irregular luteal forms. In summer the mean plasma NEFA and BHB concentrations were significantly higher, while serum carotene and plasma IGF-I concentrations were significantly lower than in winter. The high plasma NEFA concentration found in summer seemed to be in association with the lower body condition score (BCS) caused by depressed appetite. In conclusion, statistical analysis supports the hypothesis that increased plasma NEFA and BHB and decreased plasma IGF-I concentrations may result in reduced fertility in summer. These changes may be associated with the more frequent appearance of ILFs and probably have a negative effect on ovarian function and/or oocyte quality.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Janka Petrilla, Gábor Mátis, Anna Kulcsár, Petra Talapka, Enikő Bíró, Máté Mackei, Hedvig Fébel and Zsuzsanna Neogrády

This study investigates the metabolic effects of maize- or wheat-based diets with normal (NP) and lowered (LP) dietary crude protein level [the latter supplemented with limiting amino acids and sodium (n-)butyrate at 1.5 g/kg diet] at different phases of broiler fattening. Blood samples of Ross 308 broilers were tested at the age of 1, 3 and 6 weeks. Total protein (TP) concentration increased in wheat-based and decreased in LP groups in week 3, while butyrate reduced albumin/TP ratio in week 1. Uric acid level was elevated by wheat-based diet in week 1 and by wheat-based diet and butyrate in week 3, but decreased in LP groups in weeks 3 and 6. Aspartate aminotransferase activity was increased by wheat-based diet in week 3, and creatine kinase activity was intensified by LP in weeks 3 and 6. Blood glucose level decreased in wheat-based groups in week 3; however, triglyceride concentration was augmented in the same groups in week 3. No change of glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and insulin concentration was observed. In conclusion, an age-dependent responsiveness of broilers to dietary factors was found, dietary cereal type was a potent modulator of metabolism, and a low crude protein diet supplemented with limiting amino acids might have a beneficial impact on the growth of chickens.

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In a recent study (Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. (2010)155: 301–308) we reported that the fatty acids (FA) of the avian (7 species) total lung phospholipids (PL) (i.e. lung parenchyma and surfactant together) provide allometric properties. To test whether this allometric scaling also occurs in either of the above components, in six gallinaceous species, in a body weight range from 150 g (Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica) to 19 kg (turkey, Meleagris gallopavo) the PL FA composition (mol%) was determined in the pulmonary surfactant, in native and in thoroughly lavaged lungs (referred to as lung parenchyma). In all three components docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) showed significant and negative allometric scaling (B = −0.056, −0.17 and −0.1, respectively). Surfactant PLs provided further negative allometry for palmitic acid and the opposite was found for palmitoleate and arachidonate. In the lung parenchymal PLs increasing body weight was matched with shorter chain FAs (average FA chain length) and competing n6 and n3 end-product fatty acids (positive allometry for arachidonic acid and negative for DHA). Negative allometric scaling was found for the tissue malondialdehyde concentration in the native and lavaged lungs (B = −0.1582 and −0.1594, respectively). In these tissues strong correlation was found between the MDA concentration and DHA proportion (r = 0.439 and 0.679, respectively), denoting the role of DHA in shaping the allometric properties and influencing the extent of in vivo lipid peroxidation of membrane lipids in fowl lungs.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: András Szabó, Judit Szabó-Fodor, Hedvig Fébel, Miklós Mézes, Imre Repa and Melinda Kovács

Adult male Wistar rats were enrolled in a study to test the acute hepatic effects of 50 mg/kg fumonisin B1 in feed for 5 days. Fumonisin B1 depressed growth and feed intake, and absolute and relative liver weight showed a significant increase. The proportions of C17:0, C18:3 n3, C22:5 n3 and C22:6 n3 fatty acids decreased in the hepatic phospholipid fraction. All proportional decreases modified the hepatocellular membrane lipids into a more rigid state. The fatty acid profile modifications were partly compensated for by endogenous glutathione (preventing the formation of conjugated dienes and trienes as initial phase lipid peroxidation indicators), while the enzymatic antioxidant defence system (glutathione peroxidase) was unaltered. In contrast, hepatic malondialdehyde, the cytotoxic product of end-phase lipid peroxidation showed a concentration increase even after 5 days of feeding. The results indicate a rather strong and rapid hepatic effect of FB1, immediately impairing membrane phospholipids, even before the enzymatic antioxidant defence is activated.

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A study was conducted to obtain data on the effects of a fungal fibrolytic enzyme preparation (Rumino-zyme, with 250 FXU/g xylanase activities) from Thermomyces lanuginosus on some rumen fermentation parameters in sheep. Ruminal fluid samples were taken just before the morning feeding and then 2 h and 4 h after feeding. Xylanase activity, pH, concentration of ammonia and volatile fatty acids were measured. The enzyme supplementation did not affect the pH but increased the xylanase activity and the total VFA concentration of the rumen fluid. The molar proportion of acetate increased, propionate was not affected and butyrate decreased after enzyme administration. The concentration of ammonia also decreased after supplementation with the enzyme product. It can be concluded that the xylanase enzyme preparation from T. lanuginosus induced favourable changes in the major rumen fermentation parameters in sheep.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Anna Blázovics, Péter Sipos, Ibolya Kocsis, Hedvig Fébel, Dénes Kleiner, Klára Szentmihályi and Erzsébet Fehér

Absztrakt:

Bevezetés: A zsírmáj kialakulhat betegségek, műtétek, gyógyszerek, éhezés vagy túlzott mértékű alkoholfogyasztás következtében, de a helytelen táplálkozást, a zsírbő és rostszegény étkezést tartják az elsődleges oknak. A nem alkoholos zsírmájbetegség a lakosság 20–30%-át érintheti. A táplálkozási eredetű zsírmájat korai stádiumban általában szövődménymentes májkárosodásnak írják le. Célkitűzés: Kutatásaink célja a zsírdús táplálkozás bél–máj tengelyre gyakorolt hatásának a feltérképezése volt. Módszerek: Rutinlaboratóriumi, analitikai és szövettani módszerekkel patkányokban vizsgáltuk a bél és a máj redoxparamétereit, valamint a máj zsírsavösszetételét és elemtartalmát. Eredmények: A máj elzsírosodása során a vérszérumban mérhető májenzim- és metabolitértékek eltérései mellett a redox-homeosztázis mutatóiban is szignifikáns változások igazolódtak. Változás volt kimutatható a májban, a vérben és a belekben. A máj elzsírosodásának folyamata együtt jár a transzmetiláló képesség csökkenésével. Megváltozott a zsírsavösszetétel és a fémion-homeosztázis is a májban. Szövettani vizsgálatoknál a májlobulusok centrális részén a hepatocyták megduzzadtak, bennük zsírcseppek láthatók, piknotikus sejtmagok alakultak ki, ami a zsíros elfajulásra jellemző. A vékony- és vastagbél enterocytái sérültek, helyenként lelökődtek a felszínről, és gyulladásos reakciók figyelhetők meg a nyálkahártyában. Következtetés: Eredményeink alapján leszögezhető, hogy a zsírdús diéta okozta steatosis már korai stádiumban sem tekinthető egyszerűen reverzibilis változásnak, mert a változások kedvezőtlenül befolyásolják az egész szervezet redox-homeosztázisát, és egyben alapját képezhetik súlyos szív- és metabolikus betegségeknek, valamint siettethetik a gastrointestinalis tumorok kialakulását. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(35): 1456–1465.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Dénes Kleiner, András Bersényi, Hedvig Fébel, Viktor Hegedűs, Eszter Mátis and Éva Sárdi

Bevezetés: A transzmetilezés térszerkezet-módosító szubsztitúciós folyamat. Feladata az élő szervezetekben, többek között, a fehérje- és génműködés szabályozása. A táplálékláncon keresztül szervezetbe juttatott metildonor vegyületek hasznosulása, illetve a könnyen mobilizálható metilpool analitikai módszerekkel nyomon követhető. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célul tűzték ki néhány növényi (búza, bab, cékla, káposzta) és állati (baromfi- és nyúlmáj) eredetű táplálék könnyen mobilizálható metilcsoportjainak koncentrációmérését, a transzmetilezés és a redox-homeosztázis kapcsolatának vizsgálatát baromfi- és nyúlmájban, valamint e paraméterek tanulmányozását kísérletes zsírmájban, patkányban. Módszer: Patkánykísérletben a tápot koleszterin, napraforgóolaj és kólsav eltérő koncentrációival dúsították. A könnyen mobilizálható metilcsoportok meghatározása túlnyomásos rétegkromatográfiás módszerrel, a hidrogéndonor-aktivitás mérése 1,1-difenil-2-pikrilhidrazil stabil szabad gyök alkalmazásával, spektrofotometriásan történt. Eredmények: A vizsgált növényi minták közül a legjelentősebb metilpoollal a babmagok rendelkeztek. A baromfimáj a nyúlmájnál szignifikánsan nagyobb könnyen mobilizálható metilcsoportszintet és hidrogéndonor-aktivitást mutatott. Patkányokban, súlyos zsírmájban csökkent a hidrogéndonor-aktivitás, és szignifikánsan csökkent a könnyen mobilizálható metilcsoportszint. Következtetések: Az eredmények felhívják a figyelmet a táplálkozás jelentőségére, különösen az elhízással összefüggő megbetegedések kapcsán. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 1180–1187.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Vera Faigl, Mónika Keresztes, Alíz Márton, Hedvig Fébel, Margit Kulcsár, Sándor Nagy, Sándor Cseh, László Solti and Gyula Huszenicza

Seasonal differences in the resumption of postpartum ovarian activity, milk production and periparturient metabolic status were investigated in lactating non-suckling dairy Awassi sheep in two consecutive experiments. In Experiment 1, autumn-lambing (AL, n = 27) and spring-lambing (SL, n = 37) ewes were investigated. Ovarian activity was monitored by means of individual progesterone (P4) profiles from day 5 to day 100 post partum. Most of the AL dams (89%) ovulated till day 35 after parturition and became cyclic thereafter. Incidence of persistent corpus luteum (CLP) and short luteal phases (sCL) was frequent (18% and 29%, respectively) among non-conceiving dams. In contrast, only 24% of the SL ewes ovulated before day 35. P4 levels during the luteal phase were lower in cyclic animals, and the cycle was longer in SL than in AL animals. No CLP or sCL was detected in the spring-lambing group, and 61% of SL ewes remained acyclic till the end of the trial. Lactation length was significantly longer in SL dams than in AL ewes (P = 0.008). According to the plasma metabolites (BHB, NEFA) and metabolic hormones (insulin, IGF-I, thyroxine) examined, negative energy balance did not appear in any of the animals. However, seasonal differences were seen in IGF-I and thyroxine levels, which were higher in the SL dams. In Experiment 2, influence of additional lighting was studied in autumn-lambing ewes. The long-day photoperiod (LD, n = 23) group was exposed to artificial light from sunset till midnight (approx. 16 h light/8 h dark) from some weeks before the expected date of delivery in mid-September until the end of December. The control group (n = 25) experienced only natural daylength. The first postpartum ovulation tended to occur later in the LD animals than in the controls (P = 0.047). The lactation of the LD group tended to be longer (P = 0.061). NEFA, BHB, insulin, IGF-I and thyroxine levels did not differ between the groups. Conclusions: (i) The ovarian function of the Awassi population is seasonal under temperate continental climate conditions. (ii) The first postpartum ovulation of non-suckling, autumn-lambing dams may occur very early, even before the completion of uterine involution. (iii) Additional artificial lighting may delay the time of first postpartum ovulation in AL ewes. (iv) Postpartum negative energy balance is unlikely to occur in dairy Awassi ewes even in high-producing intensive systems.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Gábor Mátis, Zsuzsanna Neogrády, György Csikó, Péter Gálfi, Hedvig Fébel, Katalin Jemnitz, Zsuzsanna Veres, Anna Kulcsár, Ákos Kenéz and Korinna Huber

The aim of the study was to investigate the in vivo epigenetic influences of dietary butyrate supplementation on the acetylation state of core histones and the activity of drug-metabolising microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver of broiler chickens in the starter period. One-day-old Ross 308 broilers were fed a starter diet without or with sodium butyrate (1.5 g/kg feed) for 21 days. After slaughtering, nucleus and microsome fractions were isolated from the exsanguinated liver by multi-step differential centrifugation. Histone acetylation level was detected from hepatocyte nuclei by Western blotting, while microsomal CYP activity was examined by specific enzyme assays. Hyperacetylation of hepatic histone H2A at lysine 5 was observed after butyrate supplementation, providing modifications in the epigenetic regulation of cell function. No significant changes could be found in the acetylation state of the other core histones at the acetylation sites examined. Furthermore, butyrate did not cause any changes in the drugmetabolising activity of hepatic microsomal CYP2H and CYP3A37 enzymes, which are mainly involved in the biotransformation of most xenobiotics in chicken. These data indicate that supplementation of the diet with butyrate probably does not have any pharmacokinetic interactions with simultaneously applied xenobiotics.

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