Benthic diatom investigations of some Hungarian streams have been carried out in order to find reference sites in assistance to the ecological quality analysis of the different river types according to the Hungarian river typology. On the basis of the coevaluation of biological and chemical parameters, among the investigated streams, some part of Kemence stream seems to be the appropriate reference site for the classification of the highland, siliceous rivers of Hungary. However, further invastigations are needed for the selection of reference sites for the other types of Hungarian river typology. This is the most difficult in the case of lowland rivers, which are exposed to more severe anthropogenic impacts. Important is the question which biological parameters should be investigated and considered when assessing the ecological condition of our waters. In the United States, e.g. the assessment of the relative abundance of Achnanthidium minutissimum is quite widespread (Stevenson and Bahls 1999), the extent of which indicates the level of disturbance. The use of this method is hampered, on one hand, by the fact that A. minutissimum is an early coloniser species which means that if we do not take samples from mature periphyton, we might find it dominant simply because of that, and, on the other hand, that distinguishing between the species varieties is not always unambiguous under light microscope because of its small size, and these can have different ecological needs. It is also recommended to calculate species richness, diversity and evenness (Stevenson and Bahls 1999), but based on our investigations these parameters are not in correlation with water quality. Investigation of other diatom features such as tolerance and sensitivity, some autecological parameters (as it was applied and recommended by Fore and Grafe 2002 for investigating the reaction of diatom associations to anthropogenic disturbances) might also be useful in completing the water quality analysis of rivers, however, these methods need further investigations. Some of the indices (EPI-D, IPS, IBD) calculated with the software Omnidia are suitable for the classification of our rivers, but the investigation of more rivers, flowing through different types of stone are necessary to choose the appropriate indices. The reason for this is that the different indices work with a different register of species and obviously those indices will prove to be suitable the species register of which shows the highest similarity to the diatom associations of the certain water type.
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Authors:Á. K. Kiss, K. Szabó, M. K. Singh and L. Gy. Szabó
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Authors:K. Marthi, M. Ács, G. Pokol, K. Tomor and K. Eröss-Kiss
A complex system including thermoanalytical methods, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction for studying physico-chemical behaviour of binary mixtures is described. This system has been tested by investigating binary mixtures of amphetamine hydrochloride salts.
Authors:K. Kiss, Sz. Salamon, B. Törőcsik and J. Szeberényi
The PC12 phaeochromocytoma cell line provides a useful model to study nerve growth factor-induced neuronal differentiation. The central signaling route of this process is mediated by the Ras-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase cascade. However, Ras-independent pathways are also stimulated by nerve growth factor and may contribute to differentiation signaling. One mediator for Ras-independent signal transduction in PC12 cells is phospholipase C-g that generates the second messengers diacylglycerol and inositol-trisphosphate. To probe the possible involvement of this enzyme in nerve growth factor-promoted differentiation, we used the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the inositol-trisphosphate-receptor inhibitor Xestospongin C. Our results show that both chemicals block nerve growth factor-promoted neurite outgrowth, but the blockage of phospholipase C does not inhibit nerve growth factor-induced expression of c-fos, zif268 and transin genes. In addition, induction of these genes by nerve growth factor plus dibutyryl-cAMP is comparable in wild-type PC12 cells as well as in cells in which both Ras- and phospholipase C-g-mediated pathways are inhibited. The phospholipase C-g pathway thus belongs to those nerve growth factor receptor-originated signaling routes that contribute to the biological response of PC12 cells to nerve growth factor, but its gene activating potential does not have a major role in its neuritogenic effect.
Authors:K. Balla, I. Karsai, S. Bencze, T. Kiss and O. Veisz
Stress tolerance is associated with the activation of antioxidant compounds and enzyme systems that are capable of neutralising the reactive oxygen species (ROS) continually produced in response to stress. The present experiment was designed to compare the heat tolerance of four winter wheat varieties in the shooting and grain-filling stages by investigating changes detected in antioxidant enzyme activity and yield components in response to heat stress.Heat treatment was found to cause a significant rise in the activity of the glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzymes, while there was usually a less intense decline in the activity of guaiacol peroxidase.An analysis of yield data revealed that heat stress had a more pronounced effect during grain filling in this experiment than at the beginning of shooting, as shown by the greater reduction in thousand-kernel weight and yield.
Authors:K. Bayar, O. Törjék, Erzsébet Kiss, G. Gyulai and L. Heszky
Molecular polymorphism of six species of Thysanoptera of both sexes, collected from different locations and host plants in Hungary was studied by using RAPD-PCR technique. The specimens were classified according to sampling sites (Gödöllo, Nagykovácsi and Valkó), host plants (Lathyrus tuberosus, Medicago sativa, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium pratense), sexes, and larvae in case of Aeolothrips intermedius. On the basis of the total of 103 fragments generated by 15 RAPD primers the genetic distances were calculated by cluster analysis using simple matching method. The dendrogram resulted in two main groups: Aeolothripidae (Aeolothrips intermedius) and Thripidae (Frankliniella intonsa, Kakothrips robustus, Odontothrips confusus, Thrips dilatatus and T. tabaci). Within the family Thripidae two subgroups were observed including (i) F. intonsa, T. dilatatus and T. tabaci, and (ii) K. robustus and O. confusus. Two population-specific and one sex-linked fragments were identified by the RAPD primers, OPQ14, NO11 and OPA08, respectively.