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  • Author or Editor: K. Vörös x
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Clinical observations of Babesia canis infection in 63 dogs during a 1-year period are summarised, demonstrating the pathogenicity of the Babesia strain endemic in Hungary. Most patients had babesiosis in the spring and autumn, correlating with the seasonal activity of ticks. Male animals appeared in higher numbers, probably due to an overrepresentation of outdoor dogs. Uncomplicated babesiosis was diagnosed in 32 cases. The disease affected dogs of any age in this study. Symptoms were similar to those published from other parts of the world: lethargy, fever, splenomegaly, pallor, icterus, haemoglobinuria and presence of ticks were the most common observations. Thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and neutropenia were frequent haemogram changes. Imidocarb appeared to be highly effective in eliminating the Babesia infection. Thirty-one animals demonstrated babesiosis with complications. Most Rottweilers (7/9) developed complicated disease. Old age was a risk factor for multiple complications. Multiple organ manifestations had poor prognosis. Hepatopathy (44%), pancreatitis (33%), acute renal failure (ARF; 31%) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC; 24%) were frequent complications, while immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA; 10%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; 6%) and cerebral babesiosis (3%) were rarely observed. There was a significant difference between the mean age of dogs having uncomplicated disease, babesiosis with a single complication and babesiosis with multiple complications (3.4, 4.8 and 8.6 years, respectively, p < 0.001). The recovery rate (78, 68 and 25%, respectively, p = 0.005) and mortality rate (3, 21 and 67%, respectively, p < 0.001) also tended to differ significantly in these groups. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and DIC are two possible pathways leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in babesiosis. DIC was found to predict MODS more sensitively in this study than SIRS: there were 6 animals developing MODS out of 11 identified with DIC, while only 5 dogs developed MODS out of 22 having SIRS.

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This paper presents the embryological and pathological features as well as the terminology and classification of common atrioventricular canal, a type of endocardial cushion defect. The authors give a complete description of an extremely rare congenital cardiac malformation in an equine neonate. The diagnosis of a complete, balanced common atrioventricular canal of type C in Rastelli’s classification scheme was based on two-dimensional, contrast and colour Doppler echocardiography and subsequent postmortem gross pathology. To support our diagnosis and study the pathophysiological effect of the alteration, physical examination, blood gas analysis and other laboratory tests, electrocardiography and thoracic radiography were also performed. Our search of the literature suggests that this type of developmental anomaly might account for a higher percentage of equine congenital cardiac defects than was thought earlier. We suppose that some previously described congenital heart abnormalities were misinterpreted: these anomalies could have actually represented some type of atrioventricular canal defect, resulting from the failure of the endocardial cushions to undergo complete and proper fusion.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Nóra Bagdi, Melinda Magdus, E. Leidinger, Judith Leidinger and K. Vörös

Feline blood group determination is done as a routine diagnostic method in numerous countries. Blood transfusion reactions and feline neonatal isoerythrolysis (FNI) can be avoided with the identification of different feline blood groups. The present study is the first investigation in Hungary during which 100 cats have been examined from all over the country. These cats were out of six breeds: European domestic shorthair, Persian mix, Persian, Abyssinian, Siamese and British shorthair. In the Hungarian feline population European domestic shorthair are most common but other breeds also occur. European domestic shorthair, Persian mix, Abyssinian, Siamese and British shorthair individuals all belonged to blood type A (100%). Blood type B was found very rarely and only in Persian cats. One-third of the Persian cats were categorised into blood type B, whilst type AB was not found during the study.

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In this study one spleen-intact dog (A) and two splenectomised dogs (BSE, CSE) were infected with Babesia canis. All animals developed an acute disease characterised by fever, haemoglobinuria and anaemia, the latter being more severe in the splenectomised dogs. Fever and parasitised red blood cells were detected for three days after imidocarb treatment in the splenectomised animals. Haematological abnormalities included regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia (due to neutropenia and lymphopenia) in the acute phase, soon followed by leukocytosis, neutrophilia and left shift a few days later. Acute hepatopathy was detected in all dogs with elevated ALT activity, which was more seriously altered in the splenectomised dogs. Diffuse changes in liver structure and hepatomegaly were seen by ultrasonography. Liver biopsy and histology revealed acute, non-purulent hepatitis in the splenectomised dogs. Both splenectomised dogs were successfully cured after collection of 400 ml highly parasitised blood, proving that large-amount antigen production is possible with rescuing the experimental animals. Whole blood transfusion, imidocarb and supportive care with infusions, antipyretics, glucocorticoids and diuretics were applied. The spleen-intact dog clinically recovered after receiving supportive treatment, with no imidocarb therapy. Microbial infections developed in both splenectomised animals (BSE: haemobartonellosis, CSE: osteomyelitis caused by Escherichia coli), probably as a consequence of immunosuppression after splenectomy and glucocorticoid therapy.

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The aim of this study was to characterise the development of cardiac dilatation induced by chronic volume overload in 12 dogs. Bilateral arteriovenous fistulas were created between the common femoral arteries and the femoral veins, and the animals were serially studied with transthoracic echocardiography for a period of 12 weeks after the operation. Compared to the measurements obtained before the operation (week 0), the data obtained at the end of the experimental period showed significantly increased left ventricular volume measured by 2D-echocardiography (from 25.1 cm 3 to 43.8 cm 3 , p < 0.0001 in diastole and from 8.6 cm 3 to 16.8 cm 3 , p < 0.001 in systole), and left ventricular diameter measured by M-mode echocardiography (from 26.2 mm to 32.6 mm, p < 0.0001 in diastole and from 17.1 mm to 20.6 mm, p < 0.001 in systole). The size of the left atrium also increased in transversal (from 29.2 mm to 33.6 mm, p < 0.01) but not in longitudinal diameter. In spite of a significant cardiac chamber dilatation over the 12-week period, left ventricular systolic functional variables (fractional shortening, FS % and ejection fraction, EF %), and also the left ventricular systolic and diastolic free wall thickness remained unchanged. In this study we demonstrated that chronic progressive volume overload resulted in gradual dilatation of the canine heart, and that the pathological process can be monitored successfully by serial echocardiography. We found that left atrial dilatation occurred without the development of mitral regurgitation and/or detectable left ventricular dysfunction.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: É. Nemes-Nikodém, E. Vörös, K. Pónyai, L. Párducz, S. Kárpáti, F. Rozgonyi and Eszter Ostorházi

From January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011, from 33,753 blood samples for syphilis screening, Treponema pallidum infections were confirmed in 241 pregnant women at the Department of Dermatology, Venerology, and Dermatooncology of Semmelweis University Budapest. In this period, four children born to inadequately or untreated women were confirmed to have connatal syphilis. The height of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer was measured to determine the stage of the infection and to examine the success of the antilues therapy. The diagnosis of maternal syphilis infection was confirmed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA), and IgG and IgM immunoblots. Maternal IgM immunoblot results identify mothers at risk of delivering babies with connatal syphilis better than the height of maternal RPR titer. The standard serological tests are less useful in newborns because of IgG transfer across the placenta. IgM test which depends on the infant’s response has more specificity in diagnosing connatal syphilis.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: K. Vörös, T. Németh, T. Vrabély, F. Manczur, J. Tóth, Melinda Magdus and Edina Perge

Findings of hepatic and gallbladder ultrasonography were analyzed in 12 dogs with gallbladder and/or extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction and compared with the results of exploratory laparotomy. Hepatic ultrasonography demonstrated normal liver in 2 dogs and hepatic abnormalities in 10 animals. The following ultrasonographic diagnoses were established compared to surgical findings: gallbladder obstruction caused by bile sludge (correct/incorrect: 1/2, surgical diagnosis: choleliths in one case), gallbladder obstruction caused by neoplasm (0/1, surgical diagnosis: mucocele), gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction due to choleliths (3/3), extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction caused by pancreatic mass (1/1) and small intestinal volvulus (1/1). Bile peritonitis caused by gallbladder rupture (4/4) was correctly diagnosed by ultrasound, aided with ultrasonographically-guided abdominocentesis and peritoneal fluid analysis. Rupture of the gallbladder should be suspected in the presence of a small, echogenic gallbladder or in the absence of the organ together with free abdominal fluid during ultrasonography. Laparotomy was correctly indicated by ultrasonography in all cases. However, the direct cause of obstruction could not be determined in 2 of the 12 dogs by ultrasonography alone.

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