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  • Author or Editor: L. Nagy x
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Abstract  

The present state of a long term program is reviewed. It was started to elaborate a remote controlled automated radiochemical processing system for the neutron activation analysis of biological materials. The system is based on wet ashing of the sample, followed by reactive desorption of some volatile components. The distillation residue is passed through a series of columns filled with selective ion screening materials to remove the matrix activity. The solution is thus “stripped” from the interfering radioions, and it is processed to single-elements through group separations using ion-exchange chromatographic techniques. Some special problems concerning this system are treated. (a) General aspects of the construction of a (semi)automated radiochemical processing system are discussed; (b) Comparison is made between various technical realizations of the same basic concept; (c) Some problems concerning the “reconstruction” of an already published processing system are outlined.

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In the present study, 16 women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) due to Candida albicans and Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata were followed for a period of 4 to 12 months, and 36 vaginal isolates were evaluted by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Eleven women were infected by C. albicans and5 by C. glabrata.Three electrophoretic karyotypes of C. albicans and 3 of C. glabrata were identified throughout the follow-up. All patients but one was infected with the same karyotype of C. albicans or C. glabrata during the follow-up period.Two different karyotypes of C. glabrata were identified in one patient in the course of 12 months. The results confirmed the diversity of the karyotypes of C. albicans and C. glabrata causing vulvovaginitis and demonstrated the persistence of colonization with the same strain over different periods of time despite therapy (15/16 women).

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The guidelines elaborated by the Community Plant Variety Office (CPVO) of the European Union for the registration and patenting of varieties and hybrids of cultivated crops are based on the triple criteria of distinctiveness, uniformity and stability (DUS). For many species, however, morphological descriptions are not sufficient for the detection of differences between varieties. Techniques that allow varieties to be identified and distinguished precisely and reliably are essential not only for variety identification, but also to protect variety ownership rights. Biochemical and molecular genetic methods have now reached a level of development that makes them suitable for this purpose, and when these are combined with conventional field observations the breeding stock can be unequivocally identified and any existing genetic diversity can be detected. The regular application of such analyses is a fundamental criterion in the case of maize, as more and more closely related hybrids are being entered for testing.The aim of the present work was to examine how isoenzyme patterns and PCR-based genetic markers could be used in polymorphism analysis, in order to obtain information on the genetic diversity of Hungarian breeding materials. The emphasis was on finding genetic markers characteristic of individual maize varieties, rather than of maize as a species.

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Abstract  

The G-1 intercomparison is one of the first undertakings of the International Atomic Energy Agency for the investigation of the performance of the routinely used evaluating programs for gamma ray spectra of semiconductor detectors. The details and the conclusions of this procedure are presented.

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Abstract  

A quantitative method for the analysis of -emitters in infinitely thin and thick samples was described in Part I. The calculation of errors in intensity, intensity ratio and activity concentration is discussed here in detail. Different definitions of detection sensitivity are compared and evaluated on the basis of the relative statistical error associated therewith. Dependence between the relative error of the net signal and the required measurement time is deduced and illustrated.

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Abstract  

A method for determining bulk or surface activity concentration of -emitters in infinitely thick or thin samples using energy selective detectors without any prior chemical separation or qualitative analysis was introduced in Part I. In addition to that method, a correction procedure is often required in order to compensate for the -sensitivity of the -detector. A system or two — preferably identical —detectors positioned to the front and rear side of a sample has been established. The rear side detector is shielded against -radiation. The -response of both detectors is determined as a function of -energy using monoenergetic calibration standards. Response pulses are selected to form 8 or 16 energy intervals, and separate series of correction coefficients are then computed for each interval and standard energy using the ratio of the respective counts. When a sample having mixed - and -radiation is evaluated, an effective -energy is first calculated from the pulse height distribution of the rear side detector, the appropriate series of correction coefficients is selected and finally net -counts are generated from the counts of the front side detector. Sensitivities in natural and elevated -background are presented.

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Abstract  

The activity concentration of bulk and surface samples contaminated with -emitting radioisotopes is difficult to measure without the a priori knowledge of the nature of the non-gamma emitting components. Beta-emitters cannot be identified from any measured spectral distribution. The counting efficiency of the measuring system changes significantly with -energy so it cannot be assumed to have a single value obtained with a standard source with known energy. Application of an energy selective -detector is introduced for determining bulk and surface activity concentration. Samples of infinitely thick or infinitelythin nature are to be prepared. The distribution of -energy deposited in the detector is registered as counts in 8 or 16 energy intervals. No information is needed on the qualitative composition of the sample. Normalised integral distributions (intensity ratios) are derived from the count rates of the intervals. These distributions are then compared to calibrated intensity ratios obtained with suitable standard sources. An average (effective) counting efficiency is generated from this comparison by a special algorithm. Activity concentration of an unknown sample is then obtained using this average efficiency. Calibration and sensitivity data are presented for different types of bulk and surface samples.

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Abstract  

Investigations on the disintegration rate of fission products of238U and239Pu are presented. The intensity of the - and -radiation of fission products were measured continuously in an interval of 1–1300 hours following the fission, offering the possibility for determining the general and specific characteristics of the individual fission products. A universal measuring procedure was elaborated for the rapid in situ determination of the dosimetric features of fission products, which is suitable for the accurate evaluation and prediction of external absorbed dose even in case of fission products of various origin and unknown composition.

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Abstract  

Based on the method of SAMSAHL a programmed, semi-automated processing system has been developed and tested for the neutron activation analysis of the following elements: As, Se, Sb, Br, Sn and Te. The main characteristics of the procedure are the following: wet ashing of the sample (by means of digestion in a mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide), bromination, and chlorination. The procedure is controlled via the appropriate dosage of the reagents and a carefully managed thermal balance. The chemical yield and its reproducibility were determined by tracer techniques using exactly the same parameters as for the active runs. According to the results the method can be used for the routine determination of the given elements except antimony.

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Abstract  

Mössbauer and temperature dependent EPR spectra of three iron/III/ complexes, formed with sugar type ligands /galactose, sorbitol and 1,2-propylene glycol/ were investigated. Measurements showed antiferromagnetic interaction between the iron/III/ central atoms in the specimens. On the basis of the EPR data the temperature dependence of partial susceptibilities of isolated and interacting iron/III/ centres could be determined.

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