Authors:V. Hajnal, L. Szalay, Sz. Németh, G. Ficzek, G. Bujdosó and M. Tóth
Apricot is an important fruit species in Hungary both for fresh consumption and processing. Physical parameters and change of nutrients of nine apricot cultivars were studied during the ripening period. Four Hungarian and five North-American apricot cultivars were chosen for investigation. Changes in the physical parameters were measured by three different methods (Magness-Taylor hand penetrometer, Bookfield CT3 Texture Analyser with TA 44 and TA 9 measuring head). Significant differences in flesh firmness among the cultivars were observed mainly at the beginning of ripening time. Adhesiveness, cohesiveness and chewiness of the fruits decreased continuously during ripening. The studied cultivars showed significant differences in these traits. Sugar and acid contents were also measured during ripening. The cultivars showed small differences in sugar content and bigger differences in acid content of the fruits. Our data measured and collected during this study can be useful in characterizing the apricot cultivars studied. Changes in the texture parameters responsible for transportability and the technological usability of the fruits were described across the whole ripening period. Our results may help growers as well as food technologists to determine the optimum harvest date of cultivars intended to be used for different purposes.
Authors:G. A. Golub, K. Szalay, S. M. Kukharets and O. A. Marus
In this paper, a new technical solution is introduced for the substrate mixing in a digester. The novelty content lies in the direction changes of the gravitational forces that influence the movement of organic and mineral biomass fractions. Digester case is designed as a horizontal cylinder rotating around a horizontal axis. Digester rotates in water that is in the outer casing.
This design creates a lift force for rotating digester which reduces the load on the bearings. The friction is reduced and therefore it reduces the energy loss of digester rotation and mixing of the substrate.
Authors:V. Palya, M. Nagy, R. Glávits, Éva Ivanics, D. Szalay, Á. Dán, T. Süveges, B. Markos and B. Harrach
Epidemiological, pathological, serological and virological investigations are reported on turkey haemorrhagic enteritis virus (THEV) infection in Hungarian turkey flocks. The pathogenesis of infection in experimentally infected turkeys and chickens, as well as the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing method for epidemiological investigation and for the differentiation of vaccine and field strains of THEV was also studied. Since the first recognition of the disease in Hungary in the late 1970s, until recently the disease has been diagnosed sporadically in its mild form. In the last few years (2000–2005), however, the number of outbreaks and the severity of the disease increased (9–23 affected flocks/year). Most of the outbreaks occurred at the age of 6 to 8 weeks and was complicated with
infection. The antibody levels to THEV in turkey flocks gradually declined till 5–7 weeks of age, and then they increased sharply due to natural infection with THEV. The immune response to vaccination (at 5 weeks of age) showed no significant antibody level increase one week postvaccination, but four weeks later the antibody level reached high values and then remained at this high level. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test to detect turkey adenovirus A (TAdV-A) antigen and PCR methods for THEV-specific DNA gave similarly positive results if spleens with pathognomonic lesions were tested; however, PCR proved to be more sensitive in cases with less characteristic pathological lesions. Nucleotide sequence alignment of PCR products amplified from Hungarian field strains and the Domermuth vaccine strain and that of the published THEV hexon sequences in GenBank database revealed slight differences between the sequences.