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Authors: László Könyves, Ottó Szenci, Viktor Jurkovich, Lászlóné Tegzes, Attila Tirián, Norbert Solymosi, Gyula Gyulay and Endre Brydl

The objective of this study was to determine some metabolic and other factors predicting the risk of postpartum uterine disease (PUD), and the effects of puerperal metritis (PM) on metabolic status, reproduction and milk yield were analysed. A total of 105 Holstein-Friesian cows were included, and sampled on day < −14 prepartum and days 4, 10–14, 28–35 and 56–63 postpartum for metabolic tests. From day 4 the development of PUD, and from days 28–35 the ovarian activity was monitored. When grade ≥ 1 + ketonuria was present on day 4 postpartum, this indicated a higher probability of PUD [odds ratio (OR) 2.64; P < 0.05] including PM occurring on days 10–14 (OR: 2.65; P < 0.05). Plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations > 0.200 mmol/l on days < −14 prepartum indicated a higher risk of uterine diseases (OR: 3.44; P < 0.05). The odds of PUD increased, depending on whether a body condition score (BCS) loss of ≥ 1.0 occurred between days < −14 and 28–35 (OR: 2.82; P < 0.05), between days < −14 and 10–14 (OR: 4.79; P < 0.01) or between days 10–14 and 28–35 (OR: 10.81; P < 0.01). PM was more probable (OR: 27.3; P < 0.001) in cows with retained placenta. The risk of uterine diseases was lower in multiparous than in primiparous cows (OR: 0.29; P < 0.01). PM increased the risk of ovarian inactivity between days 28 and 35 (OR: 2.83; P < 0.05). Cows affected with PM (PM+ cows) showed lower milk production on day 4 (kg; P < 0.05) and lower milk production (P < 0.05), milk fat and milk protein production (kg; P < 0.01; P < 0.01) in the first 100 days of lactation than did PM− cows.

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Authors: Attila Répási, Zoltán Szelényi, Jenő Reiczigel, Árpád Bajcsy, András Horváth and Ottó Szenci

Primiparous and multiparous lactating crossbred dairy cows (after Day 40 postpartum) with a mature corpus luteum (CL) (diameter of ≥ 17 mm determined by ultrasonography) and having a follicle with a diameter of ≥ 10 mm were treated with natural prostaglandin F (n = 80). Those from the cows that showed oestrus within 5 days after treatment were inseminated (Group 1: n = 39). Other group of cows showing oestrus without treatment (Group 2: n = 41) were inseminated and served as controls. The ovaries of each cow were scanned by transrectal ultrasonography from the day of detected oestrus (Day −1p.m.) until ovulation, to measure the changes in the areas of the CL and the largest follicle and to determine the occurrence of ovulation. Although no significant differences were found between the treated and untreated cows in terms of a reduction in the area of the corpora lutea and of an increase in the area of the dominant follicles, the mean area of these follicles in Group 2 was somewhat greater than in Group 1. The highest conception rate was achieved if AI was performed at the same day as ovulation occurred in both groups (conception rate in treated group was: 62.5%, in untreated group: 66.6%, respectively) between Day 0a.m. to Day 0p.m.. In Group 1, 54.5% conception rate has been achieved if ovulation occurred between Day 0p.m. to Day 1p.m., or 50% between Day 1p.m. to Day 2p.m. after AI, and 53.3% and 44.4% in Group 2, respectively. The conception rate for cows that ovulated before AI in Group 2 was 25%. No ovulation occurred in 7 cows until Day 2p.m. after AI and none of them became pregnant. The overall conception rate was approximately 50% in both groups, but when the cows had ovulated too early or too late relative to the time of AI, the conception rate was significantly lower, thus determination of the optimal time for AI is of great practical importance in dairy herds.

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Authors: Dávid Buják, Zoltán Szelényi, Ali Choukeir, Levente Kovács, Fruzsina Luca Kézér, Szabolcs Boldizsár, László Molnár and Ottó Szenci

The authors monitored the postpartum period during the first seven weeks after calving at a Holstein-Friesian dairy farm in Hungary. Calvings occurred between 2013 and 2015 in three periods from June to November each year (n = 314). Data were collected from the farm record and ultrasonographic examinations were performed between 22 to 28 and 43 to 49 days in milk (DIM), respectively. The animals were followed until successful artificial insemination (AI), i.e. until becoming pregnant or until culling, but at most at 365 DIM. The prevalence of dystocia, twin calving, stillbirth rate and retained fetal membranes (RFM) was 23.2%, 3.8%, 3.5%, and 34.4%, respectively. Altogether 38.9% of the cows (n = 122) had bacterial complications of involution in the first 49 DIM. The prevalence of Grade 2 clinical (puerperal) metritis (CM) was 20.1% within 5 DIM, 10.5% between 6 to 10 DIM and 13.1% from 11 to 20 DIM, while 9.9% of the cows had clinical endometritis (CEM) between 21 and 28 DIM and 1.3% of the cows between 42 and 49 DIM, respectively. Pyometra was diagnosed in 1% of the cows between 21 and 28 DIM and 0.3% between 42 to 49 DIM, respectively. About 80% (80.6%) of the cows were inseminated at least once (n = 253). The success rate of the first AI was 26.9% (n = 68). Dystocia, twin calving, RFM, CM, CEM and cyclicity had no significant effect on the days between calving and first AI, however, according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis stillbirth significantly increased the number of days from calving to first AI (P = 0.039). According to the Kaplan- Meier analysis dystocia, twin calving, stillbirth, RFM, and cyclicity had no effect on the days open. In cows with CM developed within 5 DIM or with CEM diagnosed between 21 and 28 DIM the number of days open significantly decreased (P = 0.009 and P = 0.007, respectively), which confirms the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of uterine diseases. Similar surveys should be conducted to discover the risk factors for reproductive diseases in order to decrease the reproductive losses in dairy farms.

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Authors: Adam Šuluburić, Svetlana Milanović, Sanja Vranješ-Đurić, Ivan B. Jovanović, Tomislav Barna, Milica Stojić, Natalija Fratrić, Ottó Szenci and Dragan Gvozdić

Early embryonic development may be negatively affected by insufficient progesterone (P4) production. Therefore, the aim of our study was to increase P4 by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and/or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatments after inducing oestrus by prostaglandin (PG) treatment. Lactating Simmental dairy cows (n = 110), between 1 to 5 lactations, with an average milk production of 6,500 1/305 days, at 40–80 days postpartum were used and grouped as follows: (1) PG + GnRH treatment at AI (GnRH group), (2) PG + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (hCG group), (3) PG + GnRH at AI + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (GnRH/hCG group), and (4) spontaneous oestrus (C: control group). All animals were double inseminated (at the time of oestrus detection and 12 ± 2 h thereafter). Blood serum and milk samples were collected at the day of observed oestrus (day 0), and 14, 21 and 28 days after AI. Serum P4 was determined using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) test (INEP, Zemun), and milk P4 was determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test (NIV Novi Sad). Pregnancy status was confirmed by ultrasonography between days 28 and 35 after AI. Differences of serum or milk P4 medians, pregnancy (and calving) rate were determined using Dunn’s Multiple Comparison Tests and Z test, respectively. Serum P4 medians were significantly higher at days 14, 21 and 28 after AI in the hCG-treated animals, indicating increased luteal activity, with a similar tendency in whole milk P4 values. Treatment with hCG during the early luteal phase significantly contributed to the maintenance of gestation at days 28–35 after AI, and also increased the calving rate in Simmental dairy cows.

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Authors: Rashad Alkasir, Jianfang Wang, Jian Gao, Tariq Ali, Limei Zhang, Ottó Szenci, Árpád Csaba Bajcsy and Bo Han

Trueperella (T.) pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen that causes suppurative diseases in domestic animals. In this work, the properties, pathogenesis and phenotypic diversity of T. pyogenes isolates from bovine mastitis were studied. Both pyolysin (plo) and collagen-binding protein (cbp) virulence factor genes were detected by PCR in all T. pyogenes isolates (n = 50). Using the tissue culture plate method, 90% of T. pyogenes isolates were able to form biofilms. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 13 antimicrobials against T. pyogenes isolates were determined. High susceptibility was observed to rifampin (96%), ampicillin (94%), ciprofloxacin (94%), and penicillin (92%), while low susceptibility was found to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (10%) and bacitracin (2%). The intracellular assay revealed that T. pyogenes isolates had different cytopathogenic effects on cells. The high percentage (28.6%) of T. pyogenes isolates suggests that this bacterium is an important contributor to mastitis. Moreover, the high occurrence of multidrug resistance, biofilm production, intracellular survival, and the temporal dynamics of T. pyogenes interactions are key factors for a better understanding of how immunity acts on infections with these bacteria and how they evade immune surveillance, thus highlighting the need for the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine.

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Authors: Orsolya Kutasi, Orsolya Fehér, Sára Sárdi, Nándor Balogh, Anna Nagy, Leticia Moravszki, Emese Bódai and Ottó Szenci


West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes between wild birds (natural hosts) and other vertebrates. Horses and humans are incidental, dead-end hosts, but can develop severe neurological disorders. Owing to the close contact of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with the extracellular fluid of the brain, the analysis of CSF composition can reflect central nervous system (CNS) impairments enabling the diagnosis and understanding of various neurodegenerative CNS disorders. Our objective was to compare the findings from the CSF samples of horses with neuroinvasive WNV infection with those of healthy controls. We compared findings from fifteen CSF samples of 13 horses with acute WNV encephalomyelitis with those of 20 healthy controls. Protein, particular enzymes and ions, glucose and lactate showed abnormal levels in a significant number of WNV cases. None of the six horses with elevated glucose concentrations survived. Rather neutrophilic than mononuclear pleocytosis was identified with WNV infection. Neutrophils probably play a role in the development of inflammatory response and brain damage. Although elevated glucose levels reliably predicted the outcome, they might be the consequence of increased plasma levels and reflect general stress rather than CNS pathophysiology. The CSF findings of WNV encephalomyelitis patients are non-specific and variable but facilitate the differential diagnosis.

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Authors: Baukje G. Andela, Frank J. C. M. Van Eerdenburg, Ali Choukeir, Dávid Buják, Zoltán Szelényi, Szabolcs Boldizsár, Fruzsina Luca Kézér, László Molnár, Levente Kovács and Ottó Szenci

Activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and concentrations of serum metabolites [beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA)] of primiparous (n = 83) and multiparous (n = 213) Holstein cows were studied as possible predictors of retained fetal membranes (RFM), grade 2 clinical metritis (CM) and clinical endometritis (CEM). A logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for the prevalence of CM diagnosed between 0–5, 6–10 and 11–20 days in milk (DIM) and for the prevalence of CEM diagnosed between 22–28 and 42–49 DIM. The activities of the examined serum enzymes did not show significant associations either with CM or with CEM. For NEFA sampled on days 0 and 5, an OR of 2.38 for CM 0–20 DIM and an OR of 2.58 for CM 11–20 DIM was found. For BHB sampled on days 0 and 5, an OR of 8.20 for CEM 22–28 and 42–49 DIM and an OR of 1.98 for CM 6–10 DIM were found. The prevalence of RFM was higher in ≥ 4 parity cows compared to primiparous cows (46.3% vs. 26.5%). BHB and NEFA levels measured between 0 and 5 DIM could have a predictive ability for postpartum uterine disorders such as RFM, CM and CEM.

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