Authors:D. Chowdhury, J. Arunachalam, Rakesh Verma, Sujit Pal and S. Gangadharan
40 MeV -particles have been used to determine oxygen impurity at ppm levels in silicon, copper, and stainless steel, through the radiochemical separation of18F from the matrix. The separation of18F has been carried out by two techniques, viz.(1) distillation of H2SiF6 and (2) precipitation of KBF4 and some modification has been applied in the separation, depending on the nature of interferences from the matrix. Instrumental approach was also carried out to determine the oxygen impurity at 100 ppm in Si matrix because this approach is not possible in Cu and stainless steel samples due to matrix activity.
Authors:D. Nayak, S. Lahiri, A. Mukhopadhyay and R. Pal
The bio-sorption of heavy and toxic radionuclides by three genera of algae from different taxonomic groups was studied employing the recently developed 'Tracer Packet' technique. The tracer packet of heavy and toxic metals' contained 197Hg, 198,199,200,201Tl, 199,200,201Pb, 204Bi and 204,205Po radionuclides in carrier-free state and was produced by irradiating a gold metal foil with medium energy 7Li and 12C beams successively in a 12 MV Pelletron. Three genera, Spirulina from Cyanophyceae, Oedogonium from Chlorophyceae and Catenella from Rhodophyceae were cultured in laboratory condition and were used in the experiment. The radionuclide accumulation varied according to different genera at different pH levels. At basic pH Spirulina showed a maximum radionuclide accumulation in comparison to other genera.
Authors:Sachin Pathak, I. Pius, S. Mukerjee, Sangeeta Pal and P. Tewari
Polyacrylhydroxamic acid resin synthesized by functionalization of polyacrylamide with hydroxylamine has been investigated
for the sorption of plutonium(IV) from carbonate medium, aiming at its application for the removal of plutonium from alkali
wash effluent generated during purification of TBP in PUREX process. Batch experiments have been carried out to determine
distribution coefficient of plutonium(IV) between this exchanger and various compositions of carbonate medium. Effect of the
concentration of sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and pH of the solution on the distribution coefficient have been studied
to optimize the conditions for the uptake of Pu(IV) by this exchanger. Column experiments were carried out to determine the
practical capacity of the exchanger for plutonium. Elution studies were also carried out to recover the loaded plutonium from
the ion exchange column The exchanger displayed good exchange capacity for Pu(IV) from feed solution simulating the conditions
of carbonate wash effluent generated in PUREX process. The exchanger also exhibited fast elution of Pu, suggesting the feasibility
of using it for the recovery of Pu from carbonate based wash effluent.
Authors:N. Chakraborty, R. Pal, A. Ramaswami, D. Nayak and S. Lahiri
The bioaccumulation of gold in trace concentration by Nitzschia obtusa and Navicula minima, two members of bacillariophyceae, has been studied. It has been observed that Nitzschia obtusa showed better accumulation of gold in acidic pH in comparison to neutral and basic pH. Maximum accumulation was observed
with 1 mg . kg-1 or less gold concentration. However, the accumulation by the living cells was reduced when the matrix concentration was higher. Navicula minima, on the other hand, found to be a better accumulator of gold in wide ranges of pH and substrate concentration of the media.
It was also inferred that the gold accumulation by diatom was mainly due to adsorption by biosilica (siliceous frustules of
dead diatom cells). Accumulated gold was recovered with conc. HNO3.
Authors:D. Nayak, M. Nag, S. Banerjee, R. Pal, S. Laskar and S. Lahiri
bioaccumulation of 198Au radionuclide, by Rhizocloniumriparium
a member of Chlorophyceae has been studied. It has been observed that
accumulation of gold on Rhizoclonium is almost pH independent and
slightly higher at basic pH. Accumulation of gold was studied with 198Au
radiotracer, 0.1, 1 and 5 ppm concentrations of gold. It has been concluded
from the biochemical analysis that the gold accumulation is due to adsorption
in the cellulose and not in protein, fat and carbohydrate. Accumulated gold was
recovered when washed with conc. HNO3.
Authors:A Bandyopadhyay, R Dalui, S Pal, I Bhattacharjee, B Goswami and AS Roy
Rapid economic and industrial growths imposed significant impact on human health including the pulmonary health. Questions were raised regarding the validity of the existing prediction norms of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in a particular population. The present study was conducted to investigate the applicability of the existing norms for PFTs in young healthy non-smoking female university students of Kolkata, India. Significant difference was noted in vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) when the present data were compared with the earlier study in similar population. Correlation statistic revealed significant relationship of age and body height with all the PFT parameters. Body mass had significant correlation with VC, FVC, FEV1 as a percentage of FVC (FEV1%), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Regression equations have been computed for predicting PFTs from age and body height. There has been a change of PFTs in the studied population for the last couple of decades due to increased environmental pollution in the course of economical and industrial developments. Regression equations computed in this study are not only recommended to predict PFT parameters in the studied population, but they are also considered more reliable owing to their substantially smaller standard error of estimate than those proposed in the previous study.
Authors:Y.S. Shivay, V. Pooniya, R. Prasad, M. Pal and R. Bansal
Use of high analysis fertilizers such as diammonium phosphate in place of ordinary superphosphate and urea in place of ammonium sulphate over years, sulphur application to crop fields has considerably decreased, which has led to widespread sulphur deficiency in Indian soils. Hence, considering this into account a field study for two years was conducted at the research farm of ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to evaluate sulphur-coated urea (SCU) as a source of sulphur (S) and an enhanced efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. Prilled urea (PU) coated with 4 to 5% S significantly increased wheat grain yield to the tune of 9.58 to 11.21% and nitrogen 19.06 to 23.94% and sulphur uptake 21.76 to 29.29% over prilled urea alone by wheat. However, net return and benefit: cost ratio was the highest and significant at 5% S coating onto PU. Five % SCU supplied 50% of the sulphur needs of the wheat crop and enhanced nitrogen recovery efficiency by 60% and is therefore recommended as sulphur as well as enhanced efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer for wheat in Indo-Gangetic plains of India. This is an important finding considering the environmental safety by increased nitrogen recovery and also productivity in present scenario.
Authors:V. Nazarov, V. Chinaeva, M. Frontasyeva, S. Parry, B. Bennet, Chen Pal and Li Zu
The present paper based on experimental results contains discussions and suggestions on the possible use of fine-powder Al2O3 and SiO2 with their original content of microimpurities of up to 40 elements, as multielement standards for neutron activation analysis. For example, activation analysis of As, Au, Ba, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ga, K, Ni, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, W, Zn, Zr and the REE La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Tm, Yb contained in SiO2 powder off MERCK reagents showed their concentrations to be 0.1 to 5% of those in IAEA standard SL-1. In Al2O3 this level is even lower, approximately 10 times and more for the majority of the above-mentioned elements. As Al2O3 and SiO2 are good sorbents for the majority of elements, additional introduction of some elements may allow more methods of analysis. The homogeneity of Al2O3 and SiO2 samples both in the original state and after introduction of some elements was determined by neutron activation analysis, and the SD did not exceed 1% for an Al2O3 sample weight of 0.1 g, and 2% for SiO2.
Authors:Sangita Pal, Suchismita Mishra, S. Satpati, G. Pandit, P. Tewari and V. Puranik
“In-House” resin Polyacrylhydroxamic acid (PHOA) has been synthesized and utilized targeting ground water remediation; recovery
of uranium from low concentration aqueous solution e.g., mining activities related water, flooding of excavated or deplumed
areas, nuclear plant washed effluent and process generated effluents in nuclear plant during front-end as well as back-end
treatment. In the present study, treatment of field effluent containing heavy metals and radio-nuclides from contaminated
mining sites reflected preference for uranium with respect to manganese. The specific complexation between the extractant
and metal ion especially uranium provides high distribution co-efficient (Kd) for uranium (Kd,U = 1,450 mL/g from inlet of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) and Kd,U = 74,950 mL/g for synthetic solution) compared to high level impurity (1,000 times higher concentration) of manganese (Kd,Mn = 111 mL/g from inlet of ETP and Kd,Mn = 10,588 mL/g for synthetic solution). The “In-House” resin showed significant extractability (70–95% elution efficiency)
and indicates a possibility of selective removal/recovery of the valuable metal ions even from secondary sources. As a specialty,
resin can be regenerated and reused.
Authors:Gurdip Singh, A. K. Shrimal, Inder Pal Singh Kapoor, Chandra Prakash Singh, Dinesh Kumar and Manan S. Mudi
Three transition metal perchlorate complexes of general formula [M(dah)2)](ClO4)2 (where M = Zn, Cu, and Ni; dah = 1,6-diaminohexane) have been prepared, and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR), and gravimetric method. The thermal decomposition has been studied by thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Kinetics parameters of their thermolysis were evaluated by model-fitting and isoconversional methods using isothermal TG data. Model-fitting method has given the single value of activation energy (E) whereas; isoconversional method yields a series of E values which vary with the extent of conversion. Further ignition delay of these complexes was measured to see the response toward rapid heating with varying amounts. The thermal stability of the complexes decreases in the order as: [Zn(dah)2)](ClO4)2 > [Cu(dah)2)](ClO4)2 > [Ni(dah)2)](ClO4)2