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  • Author or Editor: A. Khan x
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Abstract  

Effects of humidity and light conditions /fluoroscent light, sunlight and diffuse sunlight/ on the response of 2 mm thick clear polymethylmethacrylate /PMMA/ dosimeter during irradiation and during postirradiation storage were determined spectrophotometrically at 305 and 314 nm. The results showed that irradiation of dosimeters at 12–97% relative humidity did not result in any change in the response upto 2 weeks of post-irradiation storage. However, there is some decrease in the response at higher humidities />76%/ for longer storage time. Post-irradiation storage and dosimeters at constant relative humidity conditions between 35 and 97% had no effect on the response up-to 3 weeks. Post-irradiation storage at lower relative humidity /12%/ showed some decrease in the response for longer periods. The response of dosimeter is not very sensitive to short time exposure to diffuse sunlight and fluorescent light. However, a significant increase in the optical density was observed during exposure of dosimeters to direct sunlight.

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Abstract  

Production of radioactive scandium by irradiating natural titanium metal in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 was evaluated. The production rate of 47Sc and other radioactive scandium was estimated. High specific activity 47Sc can be produced by irradiating enriched 47Ti in sufficient quantities needed for therapeutic applications. A new separation technique based on column chromatography was developed. Neutron irradiated titanium was dissolved in hydrofluoric acid, which was evaporated and taken in distilled water. The resulting solution was loaded on silica gel column. The radioactive scandium comes out first and the inactive titanium is removed with 2 M HCl. More than 95% radioactive scandium was recovered, while chemical impurity of titanium determined by optical emission spectroscopy was less than 0.01 μg/mL in final product.

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Abstract  

The complexation of uranyl ion with acetate ions was investigated in 20% ethanolic solution by using cyclic voltammetry. The uranium formed 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with acetate ions. The values of log β1 and log β2 for uranyl acetate complexes were 2.05 ± 0.08 and 5.25 ± 0.06 respectively. The diffusion coefficient and heterogeneous rate constants for the reduction of uranyl ion at hanging mercury drop electrode in 20% ethanolic solution of acetate ions were 0.43 × 10−5 cm2 s−1 and 2.26 × 10−3 cm s−1, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated by finding the effect of temperature on the heterogeneous rate constants. The values of ΔH *, ΔS * and

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were 2.52 kJ mol−1, −43.8 J mol−1 K−1 and 15.57 kJ mol−1. The positive values of ΔH * and
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indicated that electrochemical reduction of uranyl ions in ethanolic solution of acetate ions is an endothermic and non-spontaneous process.

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Abstract  

Production of Copper-64 (64Cu) by irradiating copper and zinc metals in a reactor was evaluated. Low specific activity 64Cu can be easily produced using thermal neutrons via 63Cu (n,γ) 64Cu reaction, while use of fast neutrons are mandatory for high specific activity 64Cu via 64Zn (n,p) 64Cu reaction. Natural copper and zinc targets were irradiated in Pakistan Research Reactor-1. Radionuclidic impurities produced by thermal and fast neutrons were determined. Commonly available organic anion exchange resin (AG 1-X8) was used for the separation of no-carrier-added radiocopper from neutron irradiated zinc. More than 95% 64,67Cu was recovered. The radionuclidic and chemical purity of 64Cu was determined. The specific activity of 64Cu produced by 63Cu (n,γ) and 64Zn (n,p) was compared.

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A panel of 94 diverse hexaploid wheat accessions was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the yield related traits on chromosome 3A. Population structure and kinships were estimated using unlinked SSR markers from all 21 chromosomes. Analysis of variance revealed significant difference among accessions; however, genotype × year interaction was non-significant for majority of yield related traits. A mixed linear model (MLM) approach identified six QTLs for four traits that individually accounted for 10.7 to 17.3% phenotypic variability. All QTLs were consistently observed for both study years. New putative QTLs for the maximum fertile florets per spike and spike length were identified. This report on QTLs for yield related traits on chromosome 3A will extend the existing knowledge and may prove useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for development of high yielding cultivars.

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I this paper we establish a Riesz representation type theorem which characterizes the dual of the space C rc (X,E)endowed with the countable-ope topologyi the case of E ot ecessarilya locallyconvex TVS.

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Summary

We present the comprehensive chromatographic profiles of three scorpion species, Androctonus crassicauda, Androctonus bicolor, and Leiurus quinquestriatus, commonly inhabited to Middle East regions. Their venoms were milked by electrical stimulation, diluted with distilled water, properly mixed and centrifuged to separate the mucus from venom. The clear supernatant was filtered and the protein concentration was determined. Pre-diluted venoms were chromatographed on FPLC (fast protein liquid chromatography) and RP-HPLC (reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography) and the fractions were collected for molecular weight determination. Both techniques have resulted clearly distinguishable chromatographic patterns that can be used for identification of scorpion species and having a quick indication of venom toxicity.

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Effects of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were studied on lentil plants inoculated with Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Meloidogyne incognita. Plant growth, chlorophyll, carotenoid contents, nitrate reductase (NR) activity and nodulation of lentil both in the presence and absence of Rhizobium sp. were examined in a pot test. Inoculation of plants with A. alternata / F. oxysporum f. sp. lentis / X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli / P. syringae pv. syringae or M. incognita caused a significant reduction in plant growth, number of pods per plant, chlorophyll, carotenoids and NR activity over uninoculated control. Inoculation of plants with Rhizobium sp. with or without pathogen increased plant growth and number of pods per plant, chlorophyll, carotenoids and NR activity. When plants were grown without Rhizobium, a foliar spray of plants with 10 ml solution of 0.1 mg ml–1of ZnO NPs per plant caused a significant increase in plant growth and number of pods, chlorophyll, carotenoid contents and NR activity in both inoculated and uninoculated plants. Spray of ZnO NPs to plants inoculated with Rhizobium sp. caused non significant increase in plant growth, number of pods per plant, chlorophyll, carotenoid contents and NR activity when plants were either uninoculated or inoculated with pathogens. Numbers of nodules per root system were high in plants treated with Rhizobium sp. but foliar spray of ZnO NPs had adverse effect on nodulation. Inoculation of plants with test pathogens also reduced nodulation. Spray of ZnO NPs to plants reduced galling, nematode multiplication, wilt, blight and leaf spot disease severity indices.

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Abstract  

A study on the concentration of natural and fallout radionuclides in environmental samples collected from different localities of Islamabad was performed. For the determination of gamma-emitters such as 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used while for the analysis of 90Sr, a beta-emitter, liquid scintillation counting system was used. The indoor absorbed dose rate was measured by a CaF2 : Dy thermoluminescence detector. Other radiation parameters were also determined to evaluate the radiation hazard. All the results were well within the permissible limits showing that there is no radiation hazard in the environment of Islamabad.

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