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The effect of supplementary methionine and fats of different saturation levels on the glutathione redox system of growing broiler cockerels was studied. The diet of three groups of chicks was supplemented with corn germ oil, beef tallow and fish oil at the levels of 30 g/kg and 50 g/kg of feed, respectively. The diet of further three groups was supplemented with methionine (5 g/kg of feed) in addition to the different fat sources. Control chicks were fed with a compound feed without methionine and fat supplementation. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) content as well as glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver were determined and GSH/GSSG ratio was calculated at day old and then at one and three weeks of age. Our results indicate that supplementary methionine stimulates both the synthesis of the glutathione redox system and glutathione peroxidase activity in growing chickens in the first period of postnatal life, when the risk of lipid peroxidation is high due to feeding unsaturated fats in the diet.

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Amblyopia is a visual disorder caused by an anomalous early visual experience. It has been suggested that suppression of the visual input from the weaker eye might be a primary underlying mechanism of the amblyopic syndrome. However, it is still an unresolved question to what extent neural responses to the visual information coming from the amblyopic eye are suppressed during binocular viewing. To address this question we measured event-related potentials (ERP) to foveal face stimuli in amblyopic patients, both in monocular and binocular viewing conditions. The results revealed no difference in the amplitude and latency of early components of the ERP responses between the binocular and fellow eye stimulation. On the other hand, early ERP components were reduced and delayed in the case of monocular stimulation of the amblyopic eye as compared to the fellow eye stimulation or to binocular viewing. The magnitude of the amblyopic effect measured on the ERP amplitudes was comparable to that found on the fMRI responses in the fusiform face area using the same face stimuli and task conditions. Our findings showing that the amblyopic effects present on the early ERP components in the case of monocular stimulation are not manifested in the ERP responses during binocular viewing suggest that input from the amblyopic eye is completely suppressed already at the earliest stages of visual cortical processing when stimuli are viewed by both eyes.

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In this study one spleen-intact dog (A) and two splenectomised dogs (BSE, CSE) were infected with Babesia canis. All animals developed an acute disease characterised by fever, haemoglobinuria and anaemia, the latter being more severe in the splenectomised dogs. Fever and parasitised red blood cells were detected for three days after imidocarb treatment in the splenectomised animals. Haematological abnormalities included regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia (due to neutropenia and lymphopenia) in the acute phase, soon followed by leukocytosis, neutrophilia and left shift a few days later. Acute hepatopathy was detected in all dogs with elevated ALT activity, which was more seriously altered in the splenectomised dogs. Diffuse changes in liver structure and hepatomegaly were seen by ultrasonography. Liver biopsy and histology revealed acute, non-purulent hepatitis in the splenectomised dogs. Both splenectomised dogs were successfully cured after collection of 400 ml highly parasitised blood, proving that large-amount antigen production is possible with rescuing the experimental animals. Whole blood transfusion, imidocarb and supportive care with infusions, antipyretics, glucocorticoids and diuretics were applied. The spleen-intact dog clinically recovered after receiving supportive treatment, with no imidocarb therapy. Microbial infections developed in both splenectomised animals (BSE: haemobartonellosis, CSE: osteomyelitis caused by Escherichia coli), probably as a consequence of immunosuppression after splenectomy and glucocorticoid therapy.

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Wild Origanum vulgare populations in Hungary have been analysed. In 2010 the morphological variability of 11 populations in five shires was investigated, the features of habitats were also described. The difference in elevation between the lowest and highest locality is 630 m. Nine plant associations, four soil types, variable pH between 4.81–7.96 and humus content from 0.54% to 6.97% were determined. Among the examined individual plants the maximum length of stem was 107 cm, the highest number of branches was 14 pairs, furthermore procumbent and mellow stems were also found. The defined colours of inflorescences are dyes of pink or purple. Despite to these we found individuals in one population with white flowers, green bracts and calyces.

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing (at 450 or 600 MPa for 300 s) on microbial quality as well as on organoleptic properties of fish salad with mayonnaise during 26 days of storage at 5 and 10 °C. The salad contained diced smoked trout fish, mayonnaise, and different kinds of spices. These freshly made salads usually have only a couple of days of shelf life. The HHP treatment basically did not affect the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the fish salad with mayonnaise. At both storage temperatures, the HHP treated samples showed enhanced safety and increased shelf-life up to 3 weeks.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: A. Mouwakeh, P. Radácsi, ZS. Pluhár, É. Németh Zámboriné, G. Muránszky, CS. Mohácsi-Farkas and G. Kiskó

Nigella sativa L. (black cumin) is well known for its benefits in the field of traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and investigate the antimicrobial activity of cold pressed oil (CO) and essential oil (EO) of Nigella sativa L. on food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. The microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Nigella sativa crude oil (CO) and essential oil (EO) against 4 Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and 3 Gram-negative (Salmonella Hartford, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli) foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria occurring in food products. Total fatty acid composition of CO was analysed by GLC, while the EO was analysed by GC-MS to detect its active compounds. The results showed that the major fatty acid of CO was palmitic acid (C16:0), as saturated fatty acid, however, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the main unsaturated fatty acid. The major compounds of the EO were p-cymene and thymoquinone. The inhibition on all tested bacteria of EO was 10 times higher than of CO, and the lowest concentration value was observed in case of Bacillus subtilis (0.003%). Hence, results reinforce the ambition to apply Nigella sativa oils in food as natural preservative.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: I. Bata-Vidács, A. Lugasi, J. Farkas, O. Németh and P. Fodor
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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: A. Mikulajová, D. Šedivá, M. Čertík, P. Gereková, K. Németh and E. Hybenová

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) genotypes with red and yellow colour of grain bran were examined and compared for their content of nutritive components, fatty acids and phenolic compounds profile. Moreover, the antioxidant properties were investigated using three different methods. Foxtail millet genotypes contained 14.2% of protein, 5.0% of fat and 4.3% of soluble sugars, on average. Linoleic acid was the most abundant unsaturated fatty acid and palmitic acid was the most abundant saturated fatty acid. Four hydroxybenzoic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic and syringic acid) and two hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and p-coumaric acid) were identified and quantified. All genotypes exhibited effective inhibition of free radicals. Nevertheless, ferrous ion chelating activity was weak. Antioxidant properties of foxtail millet genotypes were closely associated with the presence of phenolics. A relationship between intensity of grain colour and antioxidant properties as well as phenolic compounds content, was observed. We can conclude that the content of evaluated parameters varied among foxtail millet genotypes, therefore their assessment and selection is desirable in order to cultivate crops and produce foods with advanced nutritional and antioxidant properties.

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The aim of the experiments was to develop translocation lines by inducing homoeologous chromosome pairing in a 4H(4D) wheat-barley substitution line previously developed in Martonvásár. It was hoped to incorporate various segments of the barley 4H chromosome from the 4H(4D) substitution into wheat. Observations were made on the frequency with which wheat-barley translocations appeared in the F 2 progeny grains from a cross between the line CO4-1, which carries the Ph suppressor gene from Aegilops speltoides and thus induces a high level of homoeologous chromosome pairing, and the 4H(4D) wheat-barley substitution line, and on which chromosome segments were involved in the translocations. The translocations were identified by means of genomic in situ hybridisation. Of the 117 plants examined, three (2.4 %) were found to contain translocations. A total of four translocations were observed, as one plant contained two different translocations. The translocations consisted of one centric fusion, two dicentric translocations and one acrocentric chromosome. Plants carrying translocations were raised in the phytotron and the selection of homozygous translocation lines was commenced from the F 3 progeny grains.

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