Authors:Ji Yoon Lee, Su Mi Park, Yeon Jin Kim, Dai Jin Kim, Sam-Wook Choi, Jun Soo Kwon, and Jung-Seok Choi
Background and aims
Impulsivity is a core feature of gambling disorder (GD) and is related to the treatment response. Thus, it is of interest to determine objective neurobiological markers associated with impulsivity in GD. We explored resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in patients with GD according to the degree of impulsivity.
In total, 109 GD subjects were divided into three groups according to Barratt impulsiveness scale-11 (BIS-11) scores: high (HI; 25th percentile of BIS-11 scores, n = 29), middle (MI; 26th–74th percentile, n = 57), and low-impulsivity (LI) groups (75th percentile, n = 23). We used generalized estimating equations to analyze differences in EEG absolute power considering group (HI, MI, and LI), brain region (frontal, central, and posterior), and hemisphere (left, midline, and right) for each frequency band (delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma).
The results indicated that GD patients in the HI group showed decreased theta absolute power, and decreased alpha and beta absolute power in the left, right, particularly midline frontocentral regions.
Discussion and conclusions
This study is a novel attempt to reveal impulsive features in GD by neurophysiological methods. The results suggest different EEG patterns among GD patients according to the degree of impulsivity, raising the possibility of neurophysiological objective features in GD and helping clinicians in treating GD patients with impulsive features.
Authors:Yong-Sam Chung, Sun-Ha Kim, Jong-Hwa Moon, Hark-Rho Kim, Jong-Myoung Lim, and Jin-Hong Lee
For air pollution monitoring, about 1300 airborne particulate matter samples were collected by using a low volume air sampler
and a polycarbonate filter at two sampling sites in an urban region, Daejeon, the middle of Korea from 2003 to 2006. Mass
concentrations of the black carbon were measured using a smoke stain reflectometer. The concentrations of 24 elements in the
collected samples were analyzed by using instrumental neutron activation analysis, and its temporal trends and enrichment
factors were investigated under different environmental conditions. Analytical control was carried out by using certified
Authors:Tack-Jin Kim, Yongju Jung, Joon-Bo Shim, Si-Hyung Kim, Seungwoo Paek, Kwang-Rak Kim, Do-Hee Ahn, and Hansoo Lee
In order to enhance the efficiency of pyrochemical technology, especially electrorefining process, physicochemical data of
trivalent uranium in LiCl–KCl eutectic at 773 K were measured, including molar absorptivity, formal potential and diffusion
coefficient of U3+ ions. The molar absorptivities of U3+ were determined to be 765 ± 48 and 686 ± 39 M−1 cm−1 at 465 and 550 nm, respectively. The formal potential of U3+/U4+ redox couple and diffusion coefficient of U3+ ions were measured to be −0.308 V vs. Ag/Ag+ and 8.7 × 10−6 M−1 cm−1, respectively. To elucidate the chemical behavior of U3+ ions under the existence of oxide ions, U3+ ions were reacted with oxides ions in situ produced at the LiCl–KCl media. Surprisingly, it was revealed from XRD patterns
that UO2 was formed from the reaction between U3+ ions and O2− ions with the molar ratio of 1:1.
Authors:Jeong-Yu Kim, Jo-Eun Jeong, Je-Keun Rhee, Hyun Cho, Ji-Won Chun, Tae-Min Kim, Sam-Wook Choi, Jung-Seok Choi, and Dai-Jin Kim
Background and aims
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has gained recognition as a potential new diagnosis in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, but genetic evidence supporting this disorder remains scarce.
In this study, targeted exome sequencing was conducted in 30 IGD patients and 30 control subjects with a focus on genes linked to various neurotransmitters associated with substance and non-substance addictions, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
rs2229910 of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor, type 3 (NTRK3) was the only single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that exhibited a significantly different minor allele frequency in IGD subjects compared to controls (p = .01932), suggesting that this SNP has a protective effect against IGD (odds ratio = 0.1541). The presence of this potentially protective allele was also associated with less time spent on Internet gaming and lower scores on the Young’s Internet Addiction Test and Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Adults.
The results of this first targeted exome sequencing study of IGD subjects indicate that rs2229910 of NTRK3 is a genetic variant that is significantly related to IGD. These findings may have significant implications for future research investigating the genetics of IGD and other behavioral addictions.
Authors:Sang Shin, Ji Kim, Casiano Choresca, Jee Han, Jin Jun, and Se Park
Thelohanellus kitauei was isolated from the koi Cyprinus carpio haematopterus, and the 18S rRNA gene of T. kitauei was amplified by optimised nested-PCR. The PCR product was sequenced and compared with other 18S rRNA genes of Thelohanellus species to investigate the relationships between their host specificities and infection sites. Based on the 18S rRNA sequences, T. kitauei is most closely related to T. hovorkai (which can infect the intestine). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that T. kitauei was clustered with other Thelohanellus spp. infecting Cyprininae. The present study suggests that the infection site and the host specificity (subfamily level) are reflected in the genetic relationships among Thelohanellus species.
Authors:Haneul Kim, Minghao Huang, Furong Jin, David Bodoff, Junghoon Moon, and Young Chan Choe
In this paper, the agricultural innovation systems of two Northeast Asian countries—Korea and China—are investigated and compared from the perspective of triple helix innovation. Specifically, the current study examines the nature of agricultural innovation of the two countries and considers agricultural R&D investments and activities as well as the roles of university, industry, and government (UIG), which are the three units comprising the triple helix. As an empirical extension of the qualitative analysis, we collected bibliometric information of agricultural scientific publications from 1990 to 2010 and patent information from 1980 to 2010. By calculating transmission of uncertainty, which indicates collaboration among UIG, this paper tracks the relationship dynamics of the units comprising the triple helix. In addition, we analyze topics in scientific publications and patents in order to observe and compare the subareas that are the focus in the two countries. The findings reveal both commonalities and differences between the two countries, thus providing knowledge of and insights into the agricultural sector.
Authors:Jyothi Kumar, Joon-Soo Kim, Jin-Young Lee, and Ho-Sung Yoon
The present scientific study on uranium(VI) solvent extraction and vanadium(V) separation from sulfate solutions using Alamine
336 as an extractant diluted in kerosene was established. The preliminary experiments indicating the uranium extraction process
will follow the solvation as well as ion-exchange mechanisms. In the present acid region (0.1–1.0 mol dm−3 H2SO4) it showing the ion-exchange type mechanism. Time (1–120 min) and temperature (25–55 °C) not influencing the present extraction
system. Other experimental parameters like loading capacity of Alamine 336, stripping of uranium from loaded organic phase,
recycling of Alamine 336 and separation of uranium(VI)/vanadium(V) was studied.
Authors:Jin-Hong Lee, Joung-Myung Lim, Ki-Hyun Kim, Yong Chung, and Kil-Yong Lee
Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to measure the concentrations of about 27 elements associated with airborne PM 10 samples that were collected from a roadside sampling station at a moderately polluted urban area of Taejon city, Korea. The magnitude of their concentrations was clearly distinguished and spanned over four orders. If compared in terms of enrichment factors, it was found that certain elements (e.g., As, Br, Cl, Sb, Se, and Zn) are enriched in PM 10 samples of the study site. The factor analysis indicated three factors with statistical significance, which may exert dominant controls on regulating the metal concentration levels in the study area.
Authors:Young-Chul Shin, Sam-Wook Choi, Juwon Ha, Jung-Seok Choi, and Dai-Jin Kim
Background and Aims
To date, few studies have examined the clinical manifestation of disordered gamblers in financial markets. This study examined the differences in the clinical and treatment-related features of gambling disorder between financial markets and horse races.
Subjects who met the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (PG) and who sought treatment were assessed by retrospective chart review. One hundred forty-four subjects were included in this sample, which consisted of the following groups: financial markets (n = 45; 28.6%) and horse races (n = 99; 71.4%).
Multiple similar manifestations were found between the groups, including severity of PG, age of PG onset, amounts of gambling debts, drinking days per week, depressive mood, duration of seeking treatment after the onset of PG, and treatment follow-up duration. However, disordered gamblers who invested in the financial market were significantly more likely to be educated (p = 0.003), live with their spouses (p = 0.007), have full-time jobs (p = 0.006), and they were more likely to participate in the first type of gambling than the horse races group (p<0.001). Furthermore, the financial markets group received the anti-craving medication less often than the horse races group (p = 0.04).
Discussion and Conclusions
These findings suggest that disordered gamblers in financial markets show different socio-demographic, clinical and treatment-related features compared with the horse race gamblers, despite a similar severity of gambling disorder. Understanding these differential manifestations may provide insight into prevention and treatment development for specific types of gambling.