Authors:K. Sas, K. Csete, Z. Vezekényi, L. Sztriha, L. Vécsei and J. Papp
Depression, which is associated with an increased incidence of vascular events, frequently occurs following stroke. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitory drugs (SSRIs) as antidepressants, are well tolerated, and also seem to be effective in post-stroke depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the SSRIs citalopram and fluoxetine, on the corticocerebral blood flow (cCBF) in rabbits with unilateral carotid occlusion induced cerebral ischemia. The cCBF was measured by the hydrogen clearance technique. After determination of the mean baseline cCBF, the effects of individual doses (0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg) of citalopram or fluoxetine on the cCBF were investigated. Following the induction of an impaired cCBF, the changes in cCBF after drug treatments in this condition were likewise measured. The mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and the heart rate (HR) from the electrocardiogram (ECG) were also determined. Neither citalopram nor fluoxetine influenced the cCBF in the control group. Fluoxetine improved the cCBF only very slightly in the ischemic animals. In contrast, all the doses of citalopram exerted pronounced and dose-dependent cCBF-increasing effects in the animals with unilateral carotid occlusion (maximal mean ΔCBF: 10, 16 and 27 ml/min/100 g tissue). The HR was decreased in both groups. Only citalopram treatment led to a slight MABP-decreasing effect. Besides enhancement of the serotonergic transmission in the brain, the cCBF-increasing effect of citalopram under ischemic conditions may be of benefit in post-stroke and vascular depression.
Authors:Henrietta Papp, P. Jr. Kása, Magdolna Pákáski, L. Baláspiri and P. Sr. Kása
The neurotoxic effect of amyloid-beta peptide (1-42) was investigated in cultures of neuronal tissue derived from the basal forebrain of embryonic rat. The axonal varicosities of the cholinergic cells were revealed by vesicular acetylcholine transporter staining, and the axonal varicosities in general by synaptophysin immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that the treatment of in vitro neuronal cultures with 20 mM amyloid-beta peptide (1-42) for 2 days on day 5, 12 or 15 exerted a neurotoxic effect on both the cholinergic and the non-cholinergic neurons. In the same cultures, the absolute number of synaptophysin-positive axon varicosities was reduced to greater extent (control: 203 ± 37/field vs treated: 101 ± 16/field) than the number of vesicular acetylcholine transporter-immunoreactive (control: 48 ± 4/field vs treated: 0/field) structures. It is concluded that amyloid-beta peptide (1-42) does not have a specific effect only on the cholinergic neurons, but affects non-cholinergic neurons as well.
Authors:Mária Kovács, Rita Papp, Z. Varga-Orvos, Dalma Ménesi, L. Puskás and Ágnes Végh
The aim of the present study was to identify gene expression changes in the rapid cardiac pacing-induced delayed antiarrhythmic protection in the canine, using cDNA microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR (QRT -PCR) techniques. In all dogs under light pentobarbitone anaesthesia, a pacing electrode was introduced into the right ventricle, and then the animals were divided into three groups: (1) sham-operated and sham-paced group (SP, n = 3) (2) ischaemic control group (IC; n = 3); these were without cardiac pacing and subjected only to a 25 min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), and (3) paced group (PC, n = 3); these animals were paced at a rate of 220–240 beats min−1 24 h prior to ischaemia. With cDNA chip 23 genes were found with altered expression in response to rapid cardiac pacing and 10 genes in the IC group when compared to SP dogs. These genes encode transcription factors (MEF2); members of signaling pathways (TGFβ2, PDE4D9), hormone related proteins (e.g. vasopressin V1 and V2 receptors). RT-QPCR was used either to confirm the results of the microarray analysis and also to study 46 genes which are already known to have a role in the late phase of PC. By this method 17 genes were up-regulated and 6 genes down-regulated in the IC group; their expression ratios changed either to the opposite or showed no alteration after cardiac pacing. This study would add some new information about those transcriptional changes that are involved in the delayed phase of cardiac protection.
Authors:S. Balogh, F. Hajnal, B. Belec, M. Kómár, R. Papp, L. Nagymajtényi and E. Paulik
Several risk factors of diet-related diseases are present in the nutrition of the Hungarian population. The aim of the study was to investigate the health status and the association of the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables as indicators of healthy diet with sociodemographic factors, health behaviours in the south-eastern part of Hungary. In 2002, a cross-sectional study based on interviewer-administered questionnaires was conducted in the south-eastern part of Hungary. The sample comprised of 3419 people, aged between 15 and 75, with about 40 persons from each practice. The results demonstrated that fruit and vegetable consumption of the studied population were determined by certain demographical, economical and lifestyle factors, and were also associated with self-assessed health and health status. Altering the habits of nutrition is an integral part of health intervention programs. Success rate may, however, be largely reduced by the social and economic background of the habits in question.
Authors:S. Papp, L. Kőrösi, B. Gool, T. Dederichs, P. Mela, M. Möller and I. Dékány
Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were prepared by the reduction of HAuCl4 acid incorporated into the polar core of poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) copolymer micelles dissolved in toluene. The formation of Au NPs was controlled using three reducing agents with different
strengths: hydrazine (HA), triethylsilane (TES), and potassium triethylborohydride (PTB). The formation of Au NPs was followed
by transmission electron microscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and dynamic light scattering
(DLS). It was found that the strength of the reducing agent determined both the size and the rate of formation of the Au NPs.
The average diameters of the Au NPs prepared by reduction with HA, TES, and PTB were 1.7, 2.6, and 8 nm, respectively. The
reduction of Au(III) was rapid with HA and PTB. TES proved to be a mild reducing agent for the synthesis of Au NPs. DLS measurements
demonstrated swelling of the PS-b-P2VP micelles due to the incorporation of HAuCl4 and the reducing agents. The original micellar structure rearranged during the reduction with PTB. ITC measurements revealed
that some chemical reactions besides Au NPs formation also occurred in the course of the reduction process. The enthalpy of
formation of Au NPs in PS-b-P2VP micelles reduced by HA was determined.
Authors:M. Aloudat, A. Papp, N. Magyar, L. Simon Sarkadi and A. Lugasi
The purpose of this study was to compare the energy content and macronutrients of forty main popular traditional and modern meals in both Jordan and Hungary with the national and international recommendations. The calculation of energy content and macronutrients were done on traditional and modern recipes by two diﬀerent softwares (ESHA and NutriComp). Neither Jordanian nor Hungarian foods met the recommended energy content (35% of daily energy intake, 8400 kJ for energy intake). The recipes of both nations are characterised by higher protein, fat, and salt contents than WHO recommendation, a lower ﬁbre content, and sugar content within the recommended limits. The fat energy ratio and saturated fatty acid content of Hungarian recipes are signiﬁcantly higher than WHO recommendation. In general, Jordanian meals were more likely to meet the inclusion criteria. In conclusion, neither Jordanian nor Hungarian traditional and popular meals meet the international nutritional recommendations for a healthy diet, however, the composition of the real dishes may diﬀer signiﬁcantly from the recipes depending on the available ingredients and chosen kitchen technology.
Authors:L. Institóris, Dóra Kovács, I. Kecskeméti-Kovács, Anita Lukács, Andrea Szabó, Zsuzsanna Lengyel, A. Papp, L. Nagymajtényi and I. Dési
Detectable interactions between NOEL (No Observed Effect Level) doses of Pb, Hg and Cd in general toxicological, hematological, and immune function parameters were investigated. The metals (Pb-acetate, 20 mg/kg; HgCl2, 0.40 mg/kg; CdCl2, 1.61 mg/kg) were combined. First, the rats received the combination Pb+Hg+Cd for 4 weeks per os. Significant difference vs. control was found only in the weight of lung and popliteal lymph node (PLN). The Pb+Hg and Pb+Cd combinations significantly decreased the PLN to 100 g body weight and PLN to brain weight ratio, and Pb+Hg also decreased the relative adrenal weight. After 12 weeks treatment with the same doses, effects on the thymus, kidney, and adrenal weights in the Pb+Hg, and thymus weight in the Pb+Cd, combination were seen. Pb+Cd also affected the white and red blood cell count and hematocrit. Combined with Hg or Cd, NOEL dose Pb showed toxicity, indicating that exposure limits may be inefficient in combined exposure situations.
Authors:Anna Resetár, Zita Demeter, Emese Ficsor, Andrea Balázs, Ágnes Mosolygó, Éva Szőke, S. Gonda, L. Papp, G. Surányi and C. Máthé
In this study, we report on the production of bulb scale-derived tissue cultures capable of efficient shoot and plant regeneration in three genotypes of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L., Amaryllidaceae), a protected ornamental plant. For culture line A, high auxin and low cytokinin concentration is required for callus production and plant regeneration. The type of auxin is of key importance: α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at concentrations of 2 mg L−1 or 2–10 mg L−1 NAA with 1 mg L−1 N6-benzyladenine (BA), a cytokinin on full-strength media are required for regeneration. Cultures showing regeneration were embryogenic. When lines B and C were induced and maintained with 2 mg L−1 NAA and 1 mg L−1 BA, they produced mature bulblets with shoots, without roots. Line A produced immature bulblets with shoots under the above culture condition. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that (i) genetic differences between line A and its bulb explants were not significant, therefore these tissue cultures are suitable for germplasm preservation, and (ii) different morphogenetic responses of lines A, B and C originated from genetic differences. Culture line A is suitable for field-growing, cultivation and germplasm preservation of G. nivalis and for the production of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids.
Authors:K. Szakszon, Z. L. Veres, M. Boros, S. Sz. Kiss, B. Nagy, E. Bálega, á. Papp, E. Németh, I. Pataki and T. Szabó
We report a case of an infant with spontaneous chylothorax due to the congenital malformation of a small lymph vessel of the chest wall. Conservative therapy with omitting long-chain fatty acids from the diet, fat-free nutrition, total parenteral nutrition and intravenous somatostatin did not result in the decrease of pleural effusion. Thoracic surgical intervention performing thoracic duct ligation and using fibrin sealants was applied after 10 days of unsuccessful conservative therapy, and resulted in the complete recovery of the patient. Our experience support the already existing observations, that in cases where the daily loss of chyle exceeds 100 ml per age years and/or lasts longer than 2 weeks, early surgical intervention is recommended.