Authors:R. Mohanty, S. Singh, V. Chakravortty and K. Dash
The order of extraction of Mo(VI) from 1M acid solutions by 5% (v/v) LIX 622 (HL) in benzene is HCl>HNO3>HClO4>H2SO4, and extraction decreases with increasing concentration of HCl and H2SO4, and increases slightly with increasing concentration of HNO3 and HClO4. The extracted species is shown to be MoO2L2 as established by IR data of organic extracts and the extracted species in the solid form. Extraction is almost quantitative at and above 10% LIX 622, and is found to be independent of [Mo(VI)] in the range of 10–4 to 10–3 M. The diluents CCl4, CHCl3 and C6H6 are found to be superior to solvents of high dielectric constant for extraction of Mo(VI). Extraction of uranium(VI) by 10% (v/v) LIX 622 in benzene was found to increase with increasing equilibrium pH (3.0 to 6.0), and becomes quantitative at pH 5.9. Tributyl phosphate acts as a modifier up to 2% (v/v). Thorium(IV) is almost not extracted by LIX 622 or its mixture. Separation of Mo(VI) and U(VI) is feasible.
Authors:R. Mohanty, S. Singh, V. Chakravortty and K. Dash
The extraction order of Th(IV), U(VI) and Mo(VI) based on pH0.5 values is Mo(VI)>U(VI)>Th(IV). Quantitative extraction has been observed for U(VI) by mixture of 10% (v/v) LIX 84 and 0.1M dibenzoylmethane at pH 4.2 and by mixture of 10% LIX 84 and 0.05M HTTA in the pH range 5.5–7.3 and for Mo(VI) by 10% LIX 84 from chloride media at pH 1.5. The order of extraction of Mo(VI) from 1N acid solutions is HCl>H2SO4>HNO3>HClO4 and extraction decreases very rapidly with increase in the concentration of HCl as compared to that from H2SO4, HNO3 and HClO4 acid solutions. The diluents C6H6, CCl4 and CHCl2 are found to be superior ton-butyl alcohol and isoamyl alcohol for extraction of Mo(VI). Influence of concentration of different anions on the extraction of U(VI) and Mo(VI) has been studied. Very little extraction has been observed in case of Th(IV) by LIX 84 or its mixtures with other chelating extractants or neutral donors.
Authors:A. Dakshinamoorthy, A. Nair, S. Das, R. Singh and Satya Prakash
Palladium was separated from Al, Ru, Rh, U, Pu and also from a mixture of fission products using -benzoin-oxime as the extractant and Solvesso-100 as the diluent. The extraction is quantitative over a wide range of acidity from 0.1M to 4M HNO3. The method has been found to be equally effective to separate Pd at trace level (carrier-free form). The stoichiometry of the complex, the interference of foreign elements in Pd separation, etc., are reported. The applicability of the method to separate palladium formed in fission rapidly from all other fission products, especially the most strongly interfering molybdenum isotopes, and the recovery of this element from high level radioactive waste are also mentioned.
Authors:S. Rattan, A. Reddy, V. Mallapurkar, R. Singh and Satya Prakash
A simple method is reported in this paper to estimate229Th in the presence of228Th. The total activity of229Th and228Th was determined by following the alpha activity growth (using a liquid scintillation counter and proportional counter) of
purified thorium samples. The activity ratio of229Th/228Th was determined by alpha spectrometry. From the initial total activity and ratio, disintegration rates of229Th and228Th were calculated. The values obtained for the activities have a precision better than ±2%.
Authors:S. Dogmane, R. Singh, D. Bajpai and J. Mathur
Extraction of U(VI) from HNO3, HCl and HClO4 media using cyanex-272 (bis[2,4,4 trimethyl pentyl] phosphinic acid)/n-dodecane has been carried out. In the case of HNO3 and HClO4 media, the distribution ratio (D) value first decreases and then increases, whereas from HCl medium it first decreases and then remains constant with increase in H+ ion concentration. At lower acidities, U(VI) was extracted as UO2(HA2)2 by an ion exchange mechanism, whereas at higher acidities as UO2(NO3)2.2(H2A2) following a solvation mechanism. The D for U(VI) by cyanex-272, PC-88A and DEHPA at low acidities follows the order cyanex-272 > PC-88A > DEHPA. Also, cyanex-272 was found to extract U(VI) more efficiently than TBP at 2M HNO3. The effect of diluents on the extraction of U(VI) by cyanex-272 followed the order cyclohexane > n-dodecane > CCl4 > benzene. The loading of U(VI) into cyanex-272/n-dodecane from 2M HNO3 has shown that at saturation point, cyanex-272 was 78% loaded. No third phase was observed at the saturation level. The stripping of U(VI) from the loaded organic phase was not possible with water, it was poor with acetic acid and sodium acetate but quantitative with oxalic acid, ammonium carbonate and sodium carbonate.
Authors:R. C. Mehrotra, S. N. Varma and B. K. Singh
DTA techniques were employed to study the thermal and structural characteristics of hydrated aluminium oxides and aluminous clays of the Pipra pelitic rocks from district Sidhi, India. Detailed microscopic investigations, X-ray and chemical analyses reveal that these clays were derived by the localized weathering of arkosic metasediments. The chemical and normative behaviours have confirmed their formation by the isochemical metamorphism of arkose, aided by a little granitization and followed by minor retrogression. A tentative correlation between the thermal and structural changes of these oxides and clay minerals at various transition temperatures has nicely displayed the presence of kaolinite, diaspore and gibbsite. The exothermic curves of kaolinite confirm the recrystallization. The presence of kaolinite in the clay fractions indicates the detrital origin.
Authors:R. K. Singh Raman, F. C. Parida and A. S. Khanna
Although liquid sodium has proved to be a technologically superior and economically viable coolant in the heat-exchange circuits of fast reactors, it is fraught with the serious problems of fire hazards in the event of accidental leakages into the ambient air. For the rapid and effective suppression of sodium fires, sodium bicarbonate has emerged as a potential extinguishant. This paper attempts a description of the thermal decomposition behaviour of sodium bicarbonate fine powder in vacuum on the basis of thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. The analog percentage mass change data, transformed into dimensionless extents of reaction and calculated rates of reaction, are then analysed by a generalized computational technique. The results indicate that the most probable rate-controlling step is a process of three-dimensional contraction of the bicarbonate particle surface, with activation energyE=82.94 kJ mol−1 and frequency factorA=34.73×106 s−1. The decomposition temperature of sodium bicarbonate shows an upward trend with increasing heating rate.
Authors:S. Omanwar, J. R. Rao, G. Butchaiah, S. H. Basagoudanavar and R. K. Singh
The mechanically transmitted haemoflagellate,Trypanosoma evansicauses 'surra', a wasting disease of domestic animals and is highly endemic in distribution in Southeast Asia. The detection ofT. evansiis important for improving the epizootiological and animal health status of the region. The specificity and sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using oligonucleotide primers constructed fromT. evansirepetitive DNA sequences were studied in the present investigation. Using the assay, it was possible to amplify template DNA ofT. evansiderived from buffaloes, camels and horses to a threshold sensitivity level of 0.5 pg and to detect DNA from as few as five organisms in 10 (l crude blood samples. Following experimental infection of calves with 5 × 105T. evansi, positive signals could be observed as early as 12 h post-infection. DNAs from two common haemoflagellates of cattle,Babesia bigeminaandTheileria annulatawere not amplified with the primers.
Authors:R. A. Sayanam, A. K. Kalsotra, S. K. Mehta, R. S. Singh and G. Mandal
Clay from the Nagrotta area of Jammu (J & K State, India) was calcined at various temperatures. The products were analysed by X-ray diffraction. The mode of loss of hydroxyl group from the structure with respect to temperature is discussed. The results were supplemented by differential thermal analysis. The calcined products were subjected to lime reactivity tests and the data obtained were correlated with those of the above study to investigate the pozzolanic activity at various temperatures.
Authors:B. S. Garg, R. Dixit, A. L. Singh and R. K. Sharma
Chromium(III) complexes of the type Cr(A)(A′)2, Cr(A)2(A′) and Cr(A)3 have been prepared (whereA is either piperidyldithiocarbamate or morpholyldithiocarbamate andA′ is glycine or oxine or acetylacetone moiety). The mixed ligand complexes have been charac terized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermal studies. The complexes show magnetic moment in the range of 3.5–4.3 B.M. which corresponds to three unpaired electrons. TG studies have also been carried out, in order to study the mode of decomposition of the complexes and to evaluate various kinetic parameters.