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Authors: K. Kiss, Zs Mészáros, M. Mavroudes, M. Szmodis, M. Zsidegh, N. Ng and János Mészáros

The aim of this comparison was to evaluate the nutritional status and cardio-respiratory fitness of future health professionals, namely university students engaged in medical studies. It was assumed that the lifestyle of such students would be reflected by healthy body composition and fitness performance indicators. Altogether 1,560 volunteer, female, university students of three institutions were investigated in 2008. Height, body weight, BMI, body fat content and 800 m run test means were compared.The height, weight and BMI means did not differ significantly but PE students recorded the lowest mean body fat (18.34% vs. 24.37 and 25.12%) and shortest mean running time (203 s vs. 239 and 243 s). Among the medical (11.23%) and technical university students (19.95%) statistically the same prevalence of obesity was observed.High body fat content and low running performance of medical students were in contrast with our hypothesis. Their prevalence of overweight/obesity and low fitness did not differ from that of relatively sedentary technical university students and the average Hungarian young adult population. Thus, it is questionable how young health professionals will promote the necessity and positive effects of regular physical activity if they do not apply them to their own lifestyle.

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Authors: P. Osváth, Zs Mészáros, Sz Tóth, K. Kiss, M. Mavroudes, N. Ng and János Mészáros

Fatness generally has a negative influence on the performance of a variety of motor and cardiorespiratory fitness tests. The aim of this comparison was to analyse the effects of three grades of obesity on somatic growth, physical performance and oxygen consumption during exercise. Volunteer boys with definitely different grades of obesity were recruited for the comparison. In the group of mildly obese children (G1; n=23) BMI ranged between 24 kg.m −2 and 26 kg.m −2 ; and individual percent body fat was between 33% and 33.5%. In the case of moderate obesity (G2; n=23) BMI ranged between 26.5 kg.m −2 and 28.5 kg.m −2 ; and percent body fat was between 35% and 36%. In the extremely obese group (G3; n=20) BMI was greater than 31 kg.m −2 ; percent body fat was greater than 37.5%. Oxygen consumption during the 1,200 m run-test was measured by VIMEX-ST-type (USA) telemetric equipment.The greatest absolute aerobic power referred to the G3 boys, and the lowest oxygen consumption was characteristic of the mildly obese group. The very high differences between the body mass means resulted in a more marked inter-group variability in mean relative oxygen uptake.The predicted relative fat and high body fat content observed on the trunk, and the elevated level of resting blood pressure may indicate serious risks for the development of cardio-respiratory and metabolic disease. The very low oxygen consumption relative to body mass and poor physical performance are expected consequences of physiologic and environmental influences on the obese population.

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Authors: K Baintner, P Kiss, A Pikli, W Peumans, Susan Bardocz and A Pusztai

After oral administration several gut-binding lectins induce accumulation of liquor and amylase in the proximal small intestine (2). Orally administered Phaseolus vulgaris phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) was used to study the mediation of these effects in rats. The regulation of amylase secretion clearly differed from that of the liquor. The amylase activity was of pancreatic origin, in agreement with the known cholecystokinin-releasing effect of PHA. It appears that CCK exerts its effect both directly and by facilitating neural stimulatory pathways. Intestinal secretion was identified as the source of the liquor, without a contribution by other secretions. It was mediated by a local cholinergic reflex with the involvement of both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is speculated that the observed enteric reflex may enable the gut to transport secreted antibacterial peptides or secretory antibodies from the crypts to adherent bacteria on adjacent villi.

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This article is the first report describing a new validated method to determine the content of HupA in Huperzia selago (Huperziaceae) from wild population and obtained in in vitro culture using the chaotropic mobile phase. An aqueous-organic (acetonitrile) mobile phase with an added chaotropic salt (NaPF6) was used. The system of mobile phases ensured very high selectivity and efficiency at up to N = 6683 ± 963 theoretical plates calculated for isocratic mode. A Hypercosil GOLD column, C18 250 × 4.6 mm, and a Hypercosil GOLD precolumn, 5UM 10 × 4 mm, were employed for detection at four wavelengths, 230 nm being analytical. The regression coefficient (R 2) of the calibration was 0.9993 over the range 25–1252 μg mL−1. The recovery rates were 98.36–105.1% with RSD <2.9%. The intra- and inter-day precisions, expressed as RSD, ranged from 1.2% to 2.7%. LOD for HupA was 14 ng mL−1 for a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. The limit of quantification was 140 ng mL−1. The huperzine A (HupA) content of the plant material ranged from 0.65 mg g−1 dry weight (d.w.) to 1.59 mg g−1 d.w. (material from wild plants) and from 0.44 to 1.10 mg g−1 d.w. (material from in vitro cultures). Interestingly, in our study, plants of H. selago derived from wild population had one of the highest HupA concentrations recorded for a club moss (1.59 mg g−1 d.w.). The findings demonstrate that H. selago, found in Europe and North America, is an alternative source of HupA, richer than H. serrata. In order to confirm that HupA was present in the alkaloid extracts, HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the patterns were performed in the positive ion mode. The fragmentation quasi-molecular ion of the standard HupA (m/z = 243, [M+H]+) and the ion with m/z = 243 found in the samples were identical, confirming the compound as HupA.

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Authors: F. Kozár, F. Samu, É. Szita, Z. Konczné Benedicty, B. Kiss, E. Botos, K. Fetykó, D. Neidert and A. Horváth

Sixty three scale insect species are reported from the Mezőföld area (Hungary), a mosaic area of predominantly intensive agricultural land and scattered grassland and forested areas. In comparison, from the Kőrös-Maros National Park, dominated by natural grassland areas, only 31 species were reported. From the Mezőföld data 4 species were new for the Hungarian fauna and almost all species from Mezőföld were new for the given locality. The Mezőföld fauna could be characterised by more rare species and a lower Global Frequency Value (=higher level of species rarity), suggesting a higher overall conservation value. Scale insect species numbers show a strong negative correlation with the ratio of woody plantations. There was an overwhelming presence of a steppic scale insect species in grassland assemblages, and impoverished woody fauna of the studied wooded areas. However, there was no correlation with plant species number, with the area of natural vegetation, or with the area of loess steppe patches, which shows that the original loess step fauna is impoverished, heavily disturbed. In summary we can say, that the Mezőföld loess scale insect fauna is relatively poor, could be characterised by widely distributed, mezophilous, common species. However, it also has several important steppic elements, and therefore deserves protection.

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Authors: Zs Major, R Kirschner, N Medvegy, K Kiss, GM Török, G Pavlik, G Simonyi, Zs Komka and M Medvegy


Early repolarization in the anterior ECG leads (ERV2–4) is considered to be a sign of right ventricular (RV) remodeling, but its etiology and importance are unclear.


A total of 243 top-level endurance-trained athletes (ETA; 183 men and 60 women, weekly training hours: 15–20) and 120 leisure-time athletes (LTA; 71 men and 49 women, weekly training hours: 5–6) were investigated. The ERV2–4 sign was evaluated concerning type of sport, gender, transthoracic echocardiographic parameters, and ECG changes, which can indicate elevated RV systolic pressure [left atrium enlargement (LAE), right atrium enlargement (RAE), RV conduction defect (RVcd)].


Stroke volume and left ventricular mass were higher in ETAs vs. LTAs in both genders (p < 0.01). Prevalence of the ERV2–4 sign was significantly higher in men than in women [p = 0.000, odds ratio (OR) = 36.4] and in ETAs than in LTAs (p = 0.000). The highest ERV2–4 prevalence appeared in the most highly trained triathlonists and canoe and kayak paddlers (OR = 13.8 and 5.2, respectively). Within the ETA group, the post-exercise LAE, RAE, and RVcd changes developed more frequently in cases with than without ERV2–4 (LAE: men: p < 0.05, females: p < 0.005; RAE: men: p < 0.05, females: p < 0.005; RVcd: N.S.). These post-exercise appearing LAE, RAE, and RVcd are associated with the ERV2–4 sign (OR = 4.0, 3.7, and 3.8, respectively).


According to these results, ERV2–4 develops mainly in male ETAs due to long-lasting and repeated endurance training. The ERV2–4 sign indicates RV’s adaptation to maintain higher compensatory pulmonary pressure and flow during exercise but its danger regarding malignant arrhythmias is unclear.

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Authors: N Magyari, V Szakács, C Bartha, B Szilágyi, K Galamb, MO Magyar, T Hortobágyi, RM Kiss, J Tihanyi and J Négyesi


The aim of this study was to examine the effects of gender on the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and treadmill-based gait parameters.


Twenty elite junior athletes (10 women and 10 men) performed the FMS tests and gait analysis at a fixed speed. Between-gender differences were calculated for the relationship between FMS test scores and gait parameters, such as foot rotation, step length, and length of gait line.


Gender did not affect the relationship between FMS and treadmill-based gait parameters. The nature of correlations between FMS test scores and gait parameters was different in women and men. Furthermore, different FMS test scores predicted different gait parameters in female and male athletes. FMS asymmetry and movement asymmetries measured by treadmill-based gait parameters did not correlate in either gender.


There were no interactions between FMS, gait parameters, and gender; however, correlation analyses support the idea that strength and conditioning coaches need to pay attention not only to how to score but also how to correctly use FMS.

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Authors: I. Grigorszky, Gy. Dévai, K. Kiss, B. Tóthmérész, M. Gligora, A. Plenkovic-Moraj, Koraljka Kraj, V. Béres, Cs. Schnitchen, G. Borics and A. Nagy

Phosphatase enzymes are capable of releasing phosphate through cleavage of phosphoester bonds. The seasonal importance of this process was examined by using a model substrate paranitrophenylphosphate and the Michaelis-Menten equation to estimate the release rate of PO 4 -P from phosphomonoesters. The seasonal occurrence of phosphomonoesters and acid phosphatase activity was used to estimate the velocity of phosphate release from these compounds. Filter fractionation of phosphatase activity demonstrated that most activity (>60%) was in size fractions less than 0.45 μm. The release rates were highest in May and June (15 to 25 nmol L −1 min −1 ) during the Gonyostomum semen (Raphidophyta) bloom and decreased to less than 2 nmol L −1 min −1 in two weeks and remained low throughout the summer and the fall. Fractionation of 32 P-H 3 PO 4 labelled dissolved organic phosphorus showed this fraction to vary considerably through the year. Potential phosphate release declined through the summer and into the fall. Significance of the co-occurrence of phosphomonoesters and acid phosphatase activity maxima and Gonyostomum semen (Raphidophyta) bloom is discussed.

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Authors: G. Vida, M. Cséplő, G. Gulyás, I. Karsai, T. Kiss, J. Komáromi, E. László, K. Puskás, Z. Wang, C. Pace, Z. Bedő, L. Láng and O. Veisz

Among the factors which determine yield reliability an important role is played by disease resistance. One of the breeding aims in the Martonvásár institute is to develop wheat varieties with resistance to major diseases. The winter wheat varieties bred in Martonvásár are examined in artificially inoculated nurseries and greenhouses for resistance to economically important pathogens. The effectiveness of designated genes for resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust has been monitored over a period of several decades. None of the designated major resistance genes examined in greenhouse tests is able to provide complete resistance to powdery mildew; however, a number of leaf rust resistance genes provide full protection against pathogen attack (Lr9, Lr19, Lr24, Lr25, Lr28 and Lr35). In the course of marker-assisted selection, efficient resistance genes (Lr9, Lr24, Lr25 and Lr29) have been incorporated into Martonvásár wheat varieties. The presence of Lr1, Lr10, Lr26, Lr34 and Lr37 in the Martonvásár gene pool was identified using molecular markers. New sources carrying alien genetic material have been tested for powdery mildew and leaf rust resistance. Valuable Fusarium head blight resistance sources have been identified in populations of old Hungarian wheat varieties. Species causing leaf spots (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Septoria tritici and Stagonospora nodorum) have gradually become more frequent over the last two decades. Tests on the resistance of the host plant were begun in Martonvásár four years ago and regular greenhouse tests on seedlings have also been initiated.

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