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Authors: S. Qiu, H. Chu, J. Zhang, Y. Qi, L. Sun and F. Xu

Abstract  

The low-temperature molar heat capacities of CoPc and CoTMPP were measured by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) over the temperature range from 223 to 413 K for the first time. No phase transition or thermal anomaly was observed in the experimental temperature range for CoPc. However, a structural change was found to be nonreversible for CoTMPP in the temperature range of 368–403 K, which was further validated by the results of IR and XRD. The molar enthalpy ΔH m and entropy ΔS m of phase transition of the CoTMPP were determined to be 3.301 kJ mol−1 and 8.596 J K−1 mol−1, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of CoPc and CoTMPP such as entropy and enthalpy relative to reference temperature 298.15 K were derived based on the above molar heat capacity data. Moreover, the thermal stability of these two compounds was further investigated through TG measurements. Three steps of mass loss were observed in the TG curve for CoPc and five steps for CoTMPP.

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Abstract  

Zinc formate dihydrate has been synthesized and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, FTIR spectra and thermal analysis. The molar heat capacity of the coordination compound was measured by a temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) over the temperature range from 200 to 330 K for the first time. The thermodynamic parameters such as entropy and enthalpy vs. 298.15 K based on the above molar heat capacity were calculated. The thermal decomposition characteristics of this compound were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). TG curve showed that the thermal decomposition occurred in two stages. The first step was the dehydration process of the coordination compound, and the second step corresponded to the decomposition of the anhydrous zinc formate. The apparent activation energy of the dehydration step of the compound was calculated by the Kissinger method using experimental data of TG analysis. There are three sharply endothermic peaks in the temperature range from 300 to 650 K in DSC curve.

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Authors: Jiawu Gao, Lin Li, Yanping Deng, Zongming Gao, Changhua Xu and Mingxi Zhang

Abstract  

A new method for determining the degree of conversion of gelation (αgel) and gel time (t gel) at gel point using a single technology, DSC, is discussed in this work. Four kinds of thermoset resins are evaluated. It is found that the mutation points of reduced reaction rate (V r) vs. reaction conversion (α) curves, corresponding with the changes of reaction mechanism, represents the gelation of the reaction. The α at the mutation point is defined as αgel. From isothermal DSC curves, the point at αgel is defined ast gel. Traditional techniques (ASTM D3532 and DSC method) are also used to determine αgel andt gel in order to demonstrate this new method. We have found that the results obtained from this new method are very consistent with the results obtained from traditional methods.

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Authors: Yanyan Kong, Xingqin Zhou, Guoxian Cao, Xijie Xu, Meifen Zou, Xiaofeng Qin and Rongjun Zhang

Abstract  

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), an essential nutrient, antioxidant, redox modulator and nerve growth factor found in a class of enzymes called quinoproteins, was labeled with 99mTc by using stannous fluoride (SnF2) method. Radiolabeling qualification, quality control and characterization of 99mTc-PQQ and its biodistribution studies in mice were performed and discussed. Effects of pH values, temperature, time and reducing agents concentration on the radiolabeling yield were investigated. The quality control procedure of 99mTc-PQQ was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC), radio high-performance liquid chromatography (RHPLC) and paper electrophoresis methods. The average radiolabeling yield was 94 ± 1% under optimum conditions of 0.99 mg of PQQ, 30 μg of SnF2, 0.5 mg of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-2Na) and 18.5 MBq of Na99mTcO4 at pH 6 and 25 °C with a response volume of 1 ± 0.1 mL. 99mTc-PQQ was stable and anionic. Lipid–water partition coefficient of 99mTc-PQQ was −1.49 ± 0.16. The pharmacokinetics parameters of 99mTc-PQQ were t 1/2α = 18.16 min, t 1/2β = 100.45 min, K 12 = 0.013 min−1, K 21 = 0.017 min−1, K e = 0.016 min−1, AUC (area under the curve) = 1040.78 ID% g−1 min and CL (plasma clearance) = 0.096 mL min−1. The dual-exponential equation was Y = 10.88e−0.038t + 5.21e−0.0069t. The biodistribution of 99mTc-PQQ was studied in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research 7701 Burhelme Are., Fox Chase, Philadelphia, PA 1911 USA) mice. In vitro autoradiographic studies clearly showed that the 99mTc-PQQ radioactivity accumulated predominantly in the hippocampus and cortex, which had a high density of N-methyl-d-aspartate Receptor (NMDAR). The enrichment can be blocked by NMDAR redox modulatory site antagonists-ebselen (EB) and 99mTc-PQQ is therefore a promising candidate for the molecular imaging of NMDAR. To date, however, there have been no studies characterizing 99mTc-PQQ.

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Authors: Shouwei Zhang, Haihong Niu, Zhiqiang Guo, Zhesheng Chen, Haiping Wang and Jinzhang Xu

Abstract  

A novel adsorbent, TiO2/eggshell composite, was synthesized by sol–gel method, and characterized by XRD and FTIR. The removal of 60Co(II) from aqueous solution by TiO2/eggshell was studied as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic substances and temperature. The results indicated that the sorption of 60Co(II) on TiO2/eggshell was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. The Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R models were applied to simulate the sorption of 60Co(II) at temperatures of 303.15, 323.15 and 343.15 K. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH 0, ΔS 0, ΔG 0) calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms indicated that the sorption process of 60Co(II) on TiO2/eggshell was endothermic and spontaneous. At low pH, the sorption of 60Co(II) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation or ion exchange, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH. TiO2/eggshell composites have good potentialities for cost-effective disposal of 60Co(II) bearing wastewaters.

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Authors: Y. Xu, S. Zhang, H. Ding, X. Lu, W. Yang, S. Yuan, Y. Xiao and Y. Niu

Abstract  

The neutron-rich target-like isotope 236Th has been produced in the 238U-2p multinucleon transfer reaction between a 60 MeV/u 18O beam and natural 238U targets. The activities of thorium were determined after radiochemical separation of Th from the mixture of uranium and reaction products. The 236Th isotope was identified by the characteristic γ-rays of 642.2, 687.6 and 229.6 keV. The production cross section of 236Th was determined to be 250±50 μb.

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Abstract  

The effects of two Chinese prescriptions, Zhugu and Shengu capsules were studied on calcium absorption. The absorption ratios of Zhugu and Shengu was 30.4% and 21.5%, respectively.

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Authors: Jun-Ying Fu, Xu Zhang, Yun-Hua Zhao, Mu-Hsuan Huang and Dar-Zen Chen

Abstract

This study applies bibliometric analysis to investigate the quantity and citation impact of scientific papers in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The data are collected from 19 CAM journals in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E) database during 1980–2009, and 17,002 papers are identified for analysis. The study analyzes the document types, geographical and institutional distribution of the authorship, including international scientific collaboration. This study suggests that the major type of document is original article. The CAM papers are mostly published by North America, East Asia, and European countries, of which publications authored in East Asia are cited most. Country-wise, major contributors of CAM papers are from USA, People's Republic of China, India, England and Germany. India has the highest CPP value, attracting high attentions in CAM community. This article also finds that international co-authorship in the CAM field has increased rapidly during this period. In addition, internationally collaborated publications generate higher citation impact than papers published by authors from single country. Finally, the research identifies productive institutions in CAM, and China Medical University located in Taiwan is the most productive organization.

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Authors: Yishan Wu, Yuntao Pan, Yuhua Zhang, Zheng Ma, Jingan Pang, Hong Guo, Bo Xu and Zhiqing Yang

Abstract

This paper traces the history of China Scientific and Technical Papers and Citations database (CSTPC) since its founding in 1988. The fact that most Chinese scientists publish their research results in Chinese journals requires that China establish SCI counterparts dedicated to domestic S & T journals. The article describes the selection criteria for source journals, the approach used to adjust the structure of source journals, the criteria for selecting items to be included in the database, and the indexing method. Then it discusses the impact upon government R & D administration agencies and the science community in general by both CSTPC team and CSTPC database. Finally, the article analyzes the main factors that lead to the primary success of CSTPD. The authors encourages information workers in other non-English developing countries to build up similar databases.

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Abstract

Asymmetric electro-epoxidation of olefins had been achieved with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) as an oxidant, which was generated by electrolysis in two-phase systems of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) and ionic liquids (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMImPF6) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMImBF4)). The electrolysis conditions by different current densities (0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1 and 1.3 mA/cm2) and pH values (8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13) were optimized and 1.1 mA/cm2 and pH 11 were selected. The proposed reaction mechanism is also discussed. The performance of new catalytic systems in four kinds of reaction media in the presence or absence of ammonium acetate (NH4OAc) as a cocatalyst was investigated systematically. Compared to the chemical epoxidation systems, the enantiomeric excess (ee) values and yields for the epoxidation of styrene, α-methylstyrene and indene were acceptable in the electrocatalytic epoxidation systems.

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