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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Erika Orosz, Dorottya Kriskó, Lei Shi, Gábor L. Sándor, Huba J. Kiss, Berthold Seitz, Zoltán Zsolt Nagy and Nóra Szentmáry

Genus Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan that is widely distributed in the environment. Within this genus, numerous species are recognized as human pathogens, potentially causing Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). AK is a corneal disease, associated predominantly with contact lens (CL) wear; its epidemiology is related to the specific Acanthamoeba genotypes. This study reports seven CL wearer, Acanthamoeba PCR-positive patients with AK, diagnosed between January 2015 and 2018. Patients had the diagnosis of AK 1.36 months after first symptoms. Genotyping allowed the identification of six isolates of the T4 and one of the T8 genotypes. At first presentation, pseudendritiformic epithelopathy/dirty epithelium (four eyes, 57.1%), multifocal stromal infiltrates (five eyes, 71.4%), ring infiltrate (three eyes, 42.8%), and perineuritis (one eye, 14.3%) were observed. AK was healed without later recurrence in two eyes (28.5%) using triple-topical therapy, in three eyes (42.8%) following additional penetrating keratoplasty. In one patient (14.3%), AK recurred following successful application of triple-therapy and was treated successfully with repeated triple-topical therapy and in one patient (14.3%), no follow-up data were available after diagnosis. We could not observe correlation of genotype and clinical course or the necessity of corneal transplantation in our case series.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: H. Pikó, V. Vancsó, B. Nagy, J. Balog, M. Nagymihály, A. Herczegfalvi, L. Tímár, Z. Bán and V. Karcagi

Muscular dystrophies are a genetically heterogeneous group of degenerative muscle disorders. This article focuses on two severe forms of muscular dystrophies and provides genetic data for a large cohort of Hungarian patients diagnosed within the last few years by the authors.The Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which is located on chromosome Xp21. The genetic analysis of dystrophin is usually performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which detects approximately 95% of all deletions but does not distinguish between one and two copies of the exons investigated. The present work, therefore, concentrates on the improvement of the diagnostic panel for the analysis of DMD/BMD in Hungary. Radioactively labelled cDNA probes, encompassing the whole dystrophin gene detect all the deletions and the analysis is quantitative. In addition, the new multiple ligationdependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique was recently introduced that enabled more reliable and faster quantitative detection of the entire dystrophin gene. The genomic basis of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is associated with contraction of the D4Z4 repeat region in the subtelomere of chromosome 4q. In case of FSHD, molecular genetic criteria still have to be improved because of the complexity of the disorder.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: B. Kádár, M. Szász, Katalin Kristóf, Natasa Pesti, G. Krizsán, Julianna Szentandrássy, L. Rókusz, K. Nagy and Dóra Szabó

The aim of the study was to investigate the biofilm-production of 60 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from clinical samples and to examine the effect of different antimicrobials and their combinations with clarithromycin on biofilm-formation.The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs), and antibiotic synergy by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index were determined for the following antibiotics: ceftazidime, cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, meropenem, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin, netilmicin and clarithromycin.A total of 14 (23.3%) isolates out of 60 isolates of P. aeruginosa were biofilm positive. Cefepime, imipenem and meropenem had the lowest MIC90 values. Piperacillin/tazobactam and clarithromycin had the highest MIC90 values. Imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and clarithromycin had the lowest MBIC90 values.For biofilm-forming P. aeruginosa strains 2-fold to 128-fold higher MBIC values than MIC values were obtained for ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, amikacin and netilmicin. The MBIC was 2-fold to 512-fold lower then the MIC values in the case of piperacillin/tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and clarithromycin.Synergy was generally demonstrated for clarithromycin in combination with aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones or ceftazidime. However, surprisingly it was found that combinations of clarithromycin with carbapenems or cefepime led to an antagonistic interaction: combination of clarithromycin with imipenem, meropenem or ertapenem showed antagonism in 37.5%, 50% and 62.5% of the strains tested whereas its combination with cefepime expressed antagonism in 75% of the strains, respectively. To the best of our knowledge no one has previously described this phenomenon so far.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Katalin Kristóf, L. Janik, Kinga Komka, Ágnes Harmath, Júlia Hajdú, A. Nobilis, F. Rozgonyi, K. Nagy, J. Rigó and Dóra Szabó

The occurrence of Candida spp. was investigated during a three-year period in two neonatal intensive care units, Budapest, Hungary. The species distribution among the 41 analysed cases was the following: C. albicans (30/41, 73%), C. parapsilosis (10/41, 24%) and C. glabrata (1/41, 3%). All of the isolates were susceptible to the tested drugs. There was a significant difference in the birth weight, the gestational age <30 weeks and the occurrence of caesarean section between the C. albicans and the C. parapsilosis groups of the cases. Respiratory tract colonization was the same (76–77%) in the extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and the very low birth weight (VLBW) groups. Comparing the ELBW, VLBW, and >1500 g birth weight groups, significant difference was found in the parenteral nutrition, the gestation weeks <36 or <30, the polymicrobial infection and the transfusion. The ratio of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata was 9:7:1 in ELBW group; 6:3:0 in VLBW group and 15:1:0 in >1500 g group. The mortality rate for C. parapsilosis was higher than for C. albicans.

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Nanopages
Authors: J. B.Nagy, J. N. Coleman, A. Fonseca, A. Destrée, Z. Mekhalif, N. Moreau, L. Vast and J. Delhalle

Organic polymers - carbon nanotubes nanocomposites are synthesized either by mechanical mixing of the two components or by covalently linking the nanotubes to the matrix. The various procedures will be overviewed and the determining factors will be identified for the best mechanical properties of the composites. On the other hand, it will be shown that for highest electrical conductivity much smaller amounts of carbon nanotubes are needed if the nanotubes can be aligned. The thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites will also be overviewed. Finally, together with nanoclay particles, nanotubes are inducing remarkable flame retardant properties in the nanocomposites materials.

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Nanopages
Authors: A. Szabo, A. Fonseca, L. P. Biro, Z. Konya, I. Kiricsi, A. Volodin, C. Van Hasendonck and J. B.Nagy

Some recent results on the synthesis of coiled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are summarized. Several supported catalysts can lead to the formation of coiled CNTs. Interestingly, certain domains of the coil pitch and coil diameter are favoured, and two “stability islands”are found in the 3D representation of the number of coiled CNTs as a function of both coil pitch and coil diameter. It is emphasized that these nanotubes are formed either by introducing pairs of five-membered ring - seven-membered ring or by forming haeckelite structures. The coiled CNTs could be used in nanocomposite reinforcement as well as special sensors based on their remarkable mechanical and electrical properties.

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Abstract

Agricultural production is threatened by different invasive species, as their damage results in a serious loss of income. The aim of the research was the assessment of the swarming dynamics and damage of the western corn rootworm (WCR) adults and larvae. The experiment was carried out in monoculture fertilization long-term experiments and three maize hybrids compared for their reaction against WCR adult and larval damage under non-infested plots at different nitrogen levels. Differences among the hybrids have a lower effect on the damage of corn rootworm adults and larvae than the amount of applied nitrogen. The phosphorus-potassium are optimal levels, while nitrogen ranges from 0 to 300 kg and no nutrient supply took place in the control plots for 30 years. The number of adults located and feeding on the styles of the female flower recorded and the damage caused on the roots by larvae ranked on a modified Iowa scale. Nitrogen fertilization resulted in a change in the silking time. The lowest root damage observed in the case of the high nutrient treatment with an Iowa value of 3.18. The coincidence of the nourishment of adults and the egg-laying time with silking is a potential threat in terms of fertility. Based on the results, it found that the extent of root damage can be reduced through the optimal selection of the time and dose of nutrient supply, primarily that of nitrogen. In general, both larvae and adults can cause severe yield loss, but the method of control against them is different. The coincidence of the nourishment of adults and the egg-laying time with silking is a potential threat in terms of fertility.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: E. Nemes-Nagy, T. Szőcs-Molnár, I. Dunca, V. Balogh-Sămărghiţan, Şt. Hobai, R. Morar, D.L. Pusta and E.C. Crăciun

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: E. Tóth, F. Deák, Cs. Gyurkócza, Zs. Kasztovszky, R. Kuczi, G. Marx, B. Nagy, S. Oberstedt, L. Sajó-Bohus, Cs. Sükösd, G. Tóth and N. Vajda

Abstract  

For the public, indoor radon is the main source of exposure from ionizing radiation. Radon gas originates from the radioactive decay chain of uranium deposited in rocks or in building materials. In the reviews mostly a rather steady radon exhalation has been assumed. In a village of North-East Hungary, however, high radon concentrations have been measured, differing strongly in neighbouring houses and varying in time, due to the interplay of several geochemical phenomena.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: K. Szakszon, Z. L. Veres, M. Boros, S. Sz. Kiss, B. Nagy, E. Bálega, á. Papp, E. Németh, I. Pataki and T. Szabó

Abstract

We report a case of an infant with spontaneous chylothorax due to the congenital malformation of a small lymph vessel of the chest wall. Conservative therapy with omitting long-chain fatty acids from the diet, fat-free nutrition, total parenteral nutrition and intravenous somatostatin did not result in the decrease of pleural effusion. Thoracic surgical intervention performing thoracic duct ligation and using fibrin sealants was applied after 10 days of unsuccessful conservative therapy, and resulted in the complete recovery of the patient. Our experience support the already existing observations, that in cases where the daily loss of chyle exceeds 100 ml per age years and/or lasts longer than 2 weeks, early surgical intervention is recommended.

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