The Lesser Date Moth, Batrachedra amydraula (Lepidoptera: Batrachedridae), is a key pest of date palms in silos and storages. The efficacy of aluminium phosphide (Phostoxin® tablet 55%) @ 5 t/m3 and magnesium phosphide (Degesch® plates 56%) @ 2 p/30 m3 were assessed against this pest in Iran date silos based on a completely randomized block design. Based on Henderson-Tilton formula, on the third day after treatment, both treatments resulted in 100% mortality. Application of magnesium phosphide and aluminium phosphide can be a suitable substitution for methyl bromide, which has just been banned in many countries.
Authors:M. Javadzadeh, M. Taghizadeh and A. Hosseini-Gharalari
The European Mole Cricket, Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae), is a key pest of several crops in different regions of the world, damaging seedlings, roots and tubers. The efficacy of fipronil (Regent ® GR 0.2%) @ 2, 2.5 and 3 g/m2 along with toxic bait of carbaryl (EC 85%)@ 20 g/m2 were assessed against this pest in the field based on a completely randomized block design. Based on Henderson-Tilton formula, on the third day after treatment, the efficacy of fipronil @ 2, 2.5 and 3 g/m2 and carbaryl bait was 16%, 30%, 47% and 53%, respectively; while on the third day after treatment, the efficacy was 22%, 48%, 64% and 81%, respectively. At present, carbaryl application is banned in Iran; therefore, fipronil can be a suitable substitute for this insecticide.
Authors:K. Mohammadpour, A. Avand-Faghih and A. Hosseini-Gharalari
Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. (Col.: Dryophthoridae), is a key pest of date palm in Asia, North Africa and Spain. A field study was conducted in south eastern Iran to find the effect of odor sources in traps on RPW behavior. This study consisted of four experiments; each included four treatments (odor sources) and eight replications. Each experiment was repeated 4 times (i.e. four different distances between odor sources (treatments) were considered: 0, 0.5, 2 and 5 meters). In each treatment, two traps were used. The treatments were as follows: 1) one trap included two pheromones and the other trap included two pieces of plant tissue, 2) both traps included one pheromone along with one piece of plant tissue, 3) both traps included one pheromone, and 4) both traps included one piece of plant tissue. Overall, much less RPWs were caught in the traps of treatments 3 and 4 (baited with only the pheromone or the plant bait) than in the traps of treatments 1 and 2 (baited with pheromone and plant tissue) evidencing the phenomenon of synergy, previously reported. The Results of analysis of variance of total catch of traps, at all between-trap distances indicated that there was significant difference among treatments. In all experiments, traps that contained just palm tissue had the least catch rate. The RPW distinguished pheromone from plant odor when both sources were separated by less than 5 m. At distances of 5 m, attractancy of plant odor was similar to pheromone attractancy. Our results suggest that each of the chemical cues probably induce a different behavioral process. Probably, pheromone would attract RPWs from a distance, making them fly towards the pheromone sources (traps) while the plant odor would arrest flight and induce landing and local search by walking for palm tissue, resulting in entry into traps.
Authors:M. Javadzadeh, A. Sheikhi-Garjan and A. Hosseini-Gharalari
The confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum, is a key pest of stored products such as wheat and flour. For decades, organophosphorus compounds, such as malathion and pirimiphos-methyl, have been applied against stored-product pests. In this research, susceptibility of different populations of T. confusum, collected from silos at different locations of Iran, against malathion (EC 57%), was studied in the laboratory, based on a completely randomized design. Based on pre-tests, the Bioassay Index Dose was estimated as 2 g a.i./m2. Out of 23 populations, 2 populations from Bandar-Abbas region were resistant populations against malathion (9.72% and 67.2% mortality), while one population from Khomein region was moderately resistant (86.08% mortality), and the rest of the population were susceptible to malathion (95.71% to 100% mortality). Therefore, in warm locations of Iran, where this pest has evolved resistance against malathion, other control measures shall be considered.
Authors:M. G. Zamharir, F. Mozaffarian and A. Hosseini-Gharalari
Following recent detection of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini’,
‘Ca. P. aurantifolia’, ‘Ca. P. solani’ and
‘Ca. P. phoenicium’-related strains in Iranian vineyards, a
survey was conducted in 2016–2017 in vineyards located in Qazvin province of
Iran. Nested PCR analysis was performed to identify phytoplasma strains in
leafhopper species. The overall, less than 5% of grapevine trees shows
phytoplasma symptoms and phyto-plasma was detected in all symptomatic samples.
Phytoplasma DNA was detected in two leafhopper species. Most leafhopper species
in which phytoplasma DNA were detected are recorded to be grass feeders, among
which, Stolbur phytoplasma vectors, i.e. Psammotettix alienus
(Dahlbom 1851) and Agallia ribauti (Ossian-nilsson, 1938),
showed a strong potential ability for ‘Ca. P. solani’
transmission in Qazvin vineyards. The possibility of phytoplasma transmission
between leafhoppers and grapevines is discussed.
Authors:A. Sheikhi-Garjan, A. Hosseini-Gharalari, M. Mahjob, M. Rashid, Q. Sabahi, M. Safari, F. Jalilyan and R. Arbabtafti
Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps, is a key pest of wheat and barley in Iran. At present, infested areas are treated with ground sprayers. A survey was conducted to evaluate the efficiency and calibration accuracy of ground hydraulic sprayers in Iran. The results showed that the motorized lance sprayer and manually operated sprayer were the most conventional sprayers, and fenitrothion EC 50% and deltamethrin EC 2.5% were the conventional insecticides against sunn pest in Kermanshah province. The mean efficacy percentage was 88% and 35% against nymphs and overwintered adults, respectively. In motorized lance sprayers, there were 5% and 90% overdosage of fenitrothion and deltamethrin, respectively; while, in manually carried sprayers, there were 5% and 25% overdosage of fenitrothion and deltamethrin, respectively. Applied dosages were 5-20% and 25-90% more than recommended dosages of fenitrothion and deltamethrin, respectively. Errors in effectiveness and applied dosage were higher in motorized lance sprayer than manually carried sprayers.