DNA Comet Assay method was carried out to detect irradiation treatment of some foods like meat, spices, beans and lentils.
The fresh meat of cow and duck were irradiated up to radiation doses of 3 kGy, the spices (cardamoms and cumin black) were
irradiated to radiation doses of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy while the beans (black beans and white beans) and lentils (red and green
lentils) were irradiated to 0.5 and 1 kGy. All the foods were then analyzed for radiation treatment using simple microgel
electrophoresis of single cells or nuclei (DNA Comet Assay). Sedimentation, lysis and staining times were adjusted to get
optimized conditions for correct and easy analysis of each food. Using these optimized conditions, it was found out that radiation
damaged DNA showed comets in case of irradiated food samples, whereas in non-treated food samples, round or conical spots
of stained DNA were visible. Shape, length and intensity of these comets were also radiation dose dependent. Screening of
unirradiated and irradiated samples by Comet Assay was successful in the case of all the foods under consideration under the
optimized conditions of assay. Therefore, for different kinds of irradiated foods studied in the present study, the DNA Comet
Assay can be used as a rapid, simple and inexpensive screening test.
A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of thorium using 0.04% Arsenazo-III in a 2M perchloric acid solution. Absorbance was measured in 1 cm cell and the complex has a sensitive absorption peak at 654 nm. The complex is formed instantly in perchloric acid and remains stable for 45 minutes with constant absorbance. Beer's law is obeyed in the range 1–60 g·g–1 of thorium concentration with a molar absorptivity at 654 nm = 3.07·105 M–1·cm–1 at 24±2°C. The foreign ions interference in thorium determination have been checked. The cations were tested at >60-fold excess of thorium, Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(II) interfere negatively, whereas only Ce(III) has increased the absorbance. Among the anions, cyanide, phosphate, thiocyanate and acetate at 150-fold excess of thorium cause significant interference. However, thorium can bedetermined in the presence of nitrate, chloride, oxalate, tartrate, ascorbate, thiosulphate and citrate. The method has been applied on certified reference material for thorium determination after extractive separation and the result was found in good agreement with the certified value. The method has been also applied successfully to determine thorium at g·g–1 level in local ore samples with a precision of ±0.04%.
Radiosynthesis of 99mTc-sitafloxacin (99mTc-STF) complex and its efficacy as a potential infection imaging agent was evaluated. Effect of sitafloxacin (STF) concentration,
sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4), stannous chloride dihydrate (SnCl2·2H2O), and pH on the % radiochemical purity yield (RCP) of 99mTc-STF complex was studied. A stable 99mTc-STF complex up to 120 min with maximum %RCP yield was observed by mixing 2 mg of STF with 3 mCi of Na99mTcO4 and 150 μL of SnCl2·2H2O (1 μg/μL in 0.01 N HCl) at a pH 5.5. Artificially infected rats with Staphylococcus aureus were used for studying the biodistribution behavior of the 99mTc-STF complex. After 30 min of the intravenous (I.V.) administration of the 99mTc-STF complex, 7.50 ± 0.10% was absorbed in the infected thigh of the rats and the uptake gradually increased to 18.50 ± 0.20%
within 90 min. Rabbits with artificially induced infection were used for evaluating the scintigraphic accuracy. Higher uptake
in the infected thigh was observed after 2 h of I.V. administration of the 99mTc-STF complex. Target to non-target organ ratio of the % absorbed dose incase of infected/normal muscle was 6.82 ± 0.40,
17.11 ± 0.60, and 23.13 ± 1.00% at 30, 60 and 90 min of administration. Stable and higher %RCP, higher uptake in the infected
thigh, and spectral studies, recommend the 99mTc-STF for routine infection imaging.
A number of samples of whole blood, and urine from diabetic and non-diabetic persons have been analyzed for their trace elemental
contents using the proton-induced X-ray emission. The elemental contents of the diabetic and non-diabetic samples are compared.
A sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of microamounts of thorium using 0.05% thorin in a 3M perchloric acid solution as a chromogenic reagent and measuring the absorbance at 544 nm. The complex of thorium thus formed, is stable for more than two months with a constant absorbance of ±0.55%. Beer's law is obeyed from 0 to 25 g g–1 of thorium in a solution with a molar absorptivity (544 nm) = 1.69×104 M–1 cm–1 at 26±1 °C. Among the anions tested, only phosphate, acetate and cyanide at >200-fold excess of thorium interfere in the determination, whereas cations like Zn(II), Al(III), Na(I), Mg(II), and Ca(II) do not effect the absorbance. Thorium can be determined in the presence of oxalate, nitrate, tartrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, citrate, and ascorbate. The accuracy of the method has been checked by measuring the known concentration of thorium in the range of 100 g-5 mg g–1 and found to be in the range of 7.7–0.9%. The method has been applied successfully to determine thorium at g g–1 level in local ore samples with a precision of ±0.3%. The sensitivity of the method on Sandell's scale is 0.082±0.002 g g–1 cm–1.
Authors:S. Nabi Nabi, S. Ganai Ganai and A. Khan Khan
Titan yellow has been adsorbed on a strongly basic anion-exchange resin. The effects of concentration, pH, time, and temperature on adsorption of the dye by the resin have been studied. The effects of surfactants on the distribution coefficients of metal ions were also studied. On the basis of distribution coefficients several binary separations of analytical importance (Zn(II) from Hg(II), Zn(II) from Pb(II), Cu(II) from Pb(II), Cd(II) from Pb(II), and Cu(II) from Hg(II) have been achieved on a column containing the Titan yellow-modified resin. Hg(II) and Pb(II) were selectively analysed in synthetic mixtures.
Fission neutron spectrum averaged cross-sections were measured for the reactions64Zn(n, p)64Cu,67Zn(n, p)67Cu and68Zn(n, )65Ni by the activation technique, using radiochemical separations and -spectroscopy. The preparation of64Cu and67Cu in a nuclear reactor was studied. The64, 67Cu was separated from zinc matrix activity using anion exchange column technique.
An X-ray fluorescence spectrometric multivariable regression procedure is described for the determination of titanium and
molybdenum in special steels and alloys in the concentration range from 9.41% down to 120 μg/g using Ti Kα1,2 and Mo Kα1,2 analyte lines. In general, better results have been achieved in first order base curve polynomials using LiF (200) crystal
in combination with scintillation counter (SC) or krypton proportional counter (KPC). However, LiF (220)+SC combination also
yields favorable results for Mo. The measured concentrations of Ti and Mo for BAS alloy steel standards agree very well with
their certified values. The automated XRFS method for the determination of Ti and Mo appears to be free from matrix effects
and is suitable for their measurement in special steels and alloys down to 120 μg/g concentration of Ti with a precision of
3.2% and an accuracy of ±2.5% and for Mo down to 350 μg/g with a precision of <1% and an accuracy of ±1.1%. The sensitivities
for these lowest concentrations are calculated to be 5960 counts/mass %/s and 8000 counts/mass %/s for Ti and Mo, respectively.
Authors:Tanveer Bokhari, A. Mushtaq and Islam Khan
Large columns containing aluminum oxide (Al2O3) or gel (e.g. zirconium molybdate) are needed to prepare 98Mo(n,γ)99Mo→99mTc column chromatographic generators that results in large elution volumes containing relatively high 99Mo impurity and low concentrations of 99mTc. The decrease in radioactive concentration or specific volume concentration of 99mTc places a limitation on some pharmaceutical kits (DTPA, MIBI, ECD, etc.) or clinical procedures. We report on the post elution
concentration of 99mTc using in house prepared lead cation-exchange and alumina columns. Using these columns high bolus volumes (10–60 mL 0.02M
sodium sulfate) of 99mTc can conveniently be concentrated in 1 mL of physiological saline. This approach also works very effectively to prepare
high specific volume solutions of 99mTc-pertechnetate from a fission based 99Mo/99mTc generator in the second week of its normal working life.
Thermogravimetric (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermal degradation kinetics, FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD)
analysis of synthesized glycine–montmorillonite (Gly–MMT) and montmorillonite bound dipeptide (Gly–Gly–MMT) along with pure
Na–MMT samples have been performed. TG analysis at the temperature range 25–250 °C showed a mass loss for pure Na–MMT, Gly–MMT
and Gly–Gly–MMT of about 8.0%, 4.0% and 2.0%, respectively. DTA curves show the endothermic reaction at 136, 211 and 678 °C
in pure Na–MMT whereas Gly–MMT shows the exothermic reaction at 322 and 404 °C and that of Gly–Gly–MMT at 371 °C. The activation
energies of the first order thermal degradation reaction were found to be 1.64 and 9.78 kJ mol−1 for Gly–MMT and Gly–Gly–MMT, respectively. FTIR analyses indicate that the intercalated compounds decomposed at the temperature
more than 250 °C in Gly–MMT and at 250 °C in Gly–Gly–MMT.