Authors:D. Meier, A. Garnov, J. Robertson, J. Kwon, and T. Wacharasindhu
The specific energy density from radioactive decay is five to six orders of magnitude greater than the specific energy density
in conventional chemical battery and fuel cell technologies. We are currently investigating the use of liquid semiconductor
based betavoltaics as a way to directly convert the energy of radioactive decay into electrical power and potentially avoid
the radiation damage that occurs in solid state semiconductor devices due to non-ionizing energy loss. Sulfur-35 was selected
as the isotope for the liquid semiconductor demonstrations because it can be produced in high specific activity and is chemically
compatible with known liquid semiconductor media.
Authors:H. Gersch, J. Robertson, A. Henderson, D. Pollack, and C. Munson
Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry is being used to nondestructively determine the elemental composition
of copper-based artifacts excavated from prehistoric/protohistoric sites in the Ohio River Valley. Copper objects from Caborn-Welborn
(C-W) and contemporary Fort Ancient sites are being studied so as to differentiate between native American and European copper.
The trace element analysis of metal artifacts enables archaeologists to more accurately assess the material culture and chronological
development of C-W society (A.D. 1400–1700) with particular reference to geological sources of copper and brass.
Authors:J. Jones, A. Sharratt, S. Jackson, R. Griffiths, L. Gladden, F. Robertson, and G. Webb
Details of a novel temperature-programmed reduction technique are described, which allowed nickel oxide/silica catalysts to be reduced with [3H]-hydrogen. In addition to obtaining characteristic reduction profiles for the catalysts it was possible to study hydrogen isotope exchange over the catalysts during the reduction process.
Authors:A. E. Veatch, J. D. Brockman, V. L. Spate, J. D. Robertson, and J. S. Morris
Selenium is a required trace-element that has been found to be protective against serious chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease in some, but not all, epidemiological studies using both case-control and intervention designs. As a result, the fraction of the adult U.S. population now taking a daily selenium supplement is steadily increasing. In this study, we analyzed 10 or more replicate Se supplement tablets, from each of 15 different products representing 12 different brand names with most being sampled at two different times separated by approximately 30 months. Two chemical forms, seleno-yeast and selenate were tested in 50, 100 and 200 µg/tablet dosages (seleno-yeast) and 25 and 200 µg/tablet dosages (selenate). Variations in contemporary lots were evaluated at both sampling periods. The Se content provided on the product label is generally understated. One tablet contained 2.5 times more selenium than the stated dose. Selenate supplements are less accurately labeled and more highly variable compared to yeast supplements. One popular multivitamin, labeled at 200 µg/tablet, contained tablets in excess of 300 µg. Many subjects using this supplement will exceed the 400 µg/day tolerable upper limit of intake, recently established, for Se by the Institute of Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board.
Authors:J. D. Robertson, S. B. Crane, S. A. Wickline, and G. M. Lanza
Angiogenesis is integral to the development and progression of atherosclerotic disease and solid tumor growth. New microvessels form in atherosclerotic plaque and the presence of new vessels has been associated with carotid plaque instability. Likewise, solid tumor growth depends upon angiogenesis to provide tumor cells with oxygen and nutrients. Recently, Lanza et al. have demonstrated molecular imaging of angiogenesis both in human melanoma xenografts in nude mice and atherosclerotic rabbits by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with clinical magnet strengths using ανβ3-targeted nanoparticles developed in their lab. ανβ3-integrin is a selective molecular epitope expressed by angiogenic endothelium and the MRI contrast agent consists of a lipid-encapsulated, liquid perfluorocarbon nanoparticle directly coupled to a selective ανβ3 ligand. The nanoparticle also contains the paramagnetic contrast agent gadolinium linked to the nanoparticle as Gd-DTPA-bis-oleate. In this work we report on the use of neutron activation analysis to confirm the Gd content of the nanoparticle formulations and determine the biodistribution of Gd post injection.
Authors:D. Robertson, A. Schilk, K. Abel, E. Lepel, C. Thomas, S. Pratt, E. Cooper, P. Hartwig, and R. Killey
In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from lowlevel waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particulate, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species which appear to be predominately organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g.,60Co and106Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments have shown that significant fractions of the radionuclides are being transported in these groundwaters in the form of macromolecules having molecular weights ranging from less than 3,000 to 100,000.
Authors:W. H. Miller, P. Duval, S. S. Jurisson, J. D. Robertson, J. D. Wall, T. P. Quinn, W. A. Volkert, and G. M. Neumeyer
The United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its National Laboratories, including the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), are facing a serious attrition of nuclear scientists and engineers and their capabilities through the effects of aging staff. Within the DOE laboratories, 75& of nuclear personnel will be eligible to retire by 2010. It is expected that there will be a significant loss of senior nuclear science and technology staff at PNNL within five years. PNNL's nuclear legacy is firmly rooted in the DOE Hanford site, the World War II Manhattan Project, and subsequent programs. Historically, PNNL was a laboratory where 70& of its activities were nuclear/radiological, and now just under 50& of its current business science and technology are nuclear and radiologically oriented. Programs in the areas of nuclear legacies, global security, nonproliferation, homeland security and national defense, radiobiology and nuclear energy still involve more than 1,000 of the 3,800 current laboratory staff, and these include more than 420 staff who are certified as nuclear/radiological scientists and engineers. This paper presents the current challenges faced by PNNL that require an emerging strategy to solve the nuclear staffing issues through the maintenance and replenishment of the human nuclear capital needed to support PNNL nuclear science and technology programs.