Authors:Amin Khoshbayan, Aref Shariati, Ehsanollah Ghaznavi-Rad, Alex van Belkum, and Davood Darban-Sarokhalil
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the major pathogens in Iran with a high prevalence and a high level of antibiotic resistance. Ceftaroline is a fifth generation cephalosporin binding and inhibiting penicillin binding protein (PBP2a).
In the present study, 228 clinical MRSA isolates were collected from four cities of Iran and their susceptibility to ceftaroline was evaluated by E-test and the disk diffusion method.
Our results showed a high susceptibility rate (97.3%) to ceftaroline in MRSA strains from Iran. Six isolates were found to be ceftaroline non-susceptible (CPT-NS) with Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥2 µg/mL. All CPT-NS isolates were isolated from blood and tracheal aspirate and belonged to SCCmec type III as well as agr type I and were all susceptible to vancomycin. Out of six isolates, three, two and one belonged to spa type t030, t4864, and t969, respectively. Vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, chloramphenicol, and tigecycline were the most active agents against CPT-NS isolates.
Due to the broad-spectrum activity and low toxicity of ceftaroline as well as the increased rate of vancomycin resistance among MRSA strains in recent years, ceftaroline can be considered as a novel approach to treat MRSA-induced infections.
Colistin is one of the last remaining active antibiotics against multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, several recent studies reported colistin-resistant (ColR) Acinetobacter baumannii from different countries. In the current study, we investigated molecular mechanisms involved in colistin resistance in A. baumannii isolates from different clinical samples.
A total of 110 clinical A. baumannii isolates were collected from two hospitals in Tehran. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. For the ColR isolates, mutation was detected in pmrA, pmrB, lpxA, lpxC, and lpxD genes using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Moreover, the relative expression of the pmrC gene was calculated using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Three colistin resistant isolates were identified with MIC between 8 and 16 μg/mL and were resistant to all the tested antimicrobial agents. All the three isolates had a mutation in the pmrB, pmrA, lpxA, lpxD, and lpxC genes. Moreover, the overexpression of pmrC gene was observed in all isolates. Our results showed that the upregulation of the PmrAB two component system was the primary mechanism linked to colistin resistance among the studied colistin resistant A. baumannii isolates.