The Garáb Schlier Formation is composed of gray sand, silt, clay and clay marl, deposited in an open marine environment. The aims of this study were to reconstruct its paleoenvironmental features and to propose a hypostratotype of the Garáb Schlier Formation. Eighty-seven samples from the Mv-122 borehole (between 177.0–698.0 m) provided a dataset for detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis. The benthic and planktonic foraminiferal fauna were studied together. The associations indicated three different environments in the section. The lower part of the section records deposition in a normal marine, cool, outer shelf environment. Later on conditions changed to an upper bathyal, normal salinity, cool environment without permanent currents. Assemblages from the upper part of the section suggest that the water depth decreased and an inner shelf, normal salinity sea is inferred, with fluvial influence and open marine connections. The age of the sediment is Late Karpatian (Latest Burdigalian) as indicated by the M4b Planktonic Foraminifera Zone. The middle part of the studied section (337.0–664.0 m) is proposed here as the hypostratotype of the Garáb Schlier Formation.
A total of 1,514 fossil bones were studied from the Vaskapu II rock shelter (Bükk Mountains, North Hungary). The objective of this study was to investigate those processes of bone modification that were important in the dispersal, destruction and preservation of bone in the deposit. Size-selective taphonomic processes were detected in the accumulation of vertebrate remains. The fossils were transported by water through a 15 m high fissure system above the locality during repeated precipitation and thawing. Size-sorting of the bones occurred within the fissures. During this process the fossils were damaged and fragmented and the remains were eventually emplaced into the Vaskapu II rock shelter. The size-sorting is statistically established by a method based on the chisquare test. This method clearly describes the differences between the life and death assemblages.