Authors:Anett Nagy, Magda Kalmár, Anna Mária Beke, Rózsa Gráf and Endre Horváth
Theoretical background: Premature birth is in the focus of research interest as it is the most common perinatal risk endangering the development of children. However, the implications of prematurity for the long-term outcome are far from fully understood. Compromised development of cognitive and executive functions may be underlying academic underachievement in school-age preterm children. Aim: to assess the school-age outcomes of Hungarian VLBW/ELBW preterm children in basic cognitive abilities and executive function as compared to typically developing, full-term children as well as to investigate the background of individual differences. Method: 54 preterm children (27 ELBW, 27 VLBW) and a matched group of 27 healthy full-term children, aged 9–10 years, were tested using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV), the Corsi Block Tapping Task (digital version) for measuring spatial–visual working memory and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, digital version) for testing cognitive flexibility. As background variables perinatal and socioeconomic factors were entered in the analysis. Results: In each measure of the WISC-IV all three groups performed in the normal range. The ELBW children displayed certain developmental lags. They scored significantly lower in the Full-Scale IQ and the Processing Speed than the other two groups, and in the Perceptual Reasoning and one measure of spatial–visual working memory as compared to the non-risk comparison group. Perinatal complications and maternal education were related to the outcome. Conclusions: With the improved perinatal care preterm children have fair chances for good developmental outcomes. However, the individual variations are great and various perinatal and social factors may hamper the development of cognitive and executive functions. A birthweight below 1000 grams is a notable risk, particularly if combined with perinatal complications.
Authors:András N. Zsidó, Gergely Darnai, Orsolya Inhóf, Gábor Perlaki, Gergely Orsi, Szilvia Anett Nagy, Beatrix Lábadi, Kata Lénárd, Norbert Kovács, Tamás Dóczi and József Janszky
Background and aims
Internet addiction is a non-substance-related addiction disorder with progressively growing prevalence. Internet addiction, like substance-related addictions, has been linked with high impulsivity, low inhibitory control, and poor decision-making abilities. Cortical thickness measurements and trait impulsivity have been shown to have a distinct relationship in addicts compared to healthy controls. Thus, we test whether the cortical correlates of trait impulsivity are different in Internet addicts and healthy controls, using an impulsive control group (smokers).
Thirty Internet addicts (15 females) and 60 age- and gender-matched controls (30 smokers, all young adults aged 19–28 years) were scanned using a 3T MRI scanner and completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale.
Internet addicts had a thinner left superior temporal cortex than controls. Impulsivity had a significant main effect on the left pars orbitalis and bilateral insula, regardless of group membership. We identified divergent relationships between trait impulsivity and thicknesses of the bilateral middle temporal, right superior temporal, left inferior temporal, and left transverse temporal cortices between Internet addicts and healthy controls. Further analysis with smokers revealed that the left middle temporal and left transverse temporal cortical thickness change might be exclusive to Internet addiction.
The effects of impulsivity, combined with a long-term exposure to some specific substance or stimuli, might result in different natures of relationships between impulsivity and brain structure when compared to healthy controls.
These results may indicate that Internet addiction is similar to substance-related addictions, such that inefficient self-control could result in maladaptive behavior and inability to resist Internet use.