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This paper analyses the scientific output and impact of 731 Ph.D. holders who were awarded their doctorate at Spanish universities between 1990 and 2002. The aim was to identify any differences in the amount of scientific output and the impact of publications, in terms of citations, according to gender. The analysis revealed no significant differences in the amount of scientific output between males and females. However, the proportion of female Ph.D. holders with no postdoctoral output was significantly higher than that of their male counterparts, and the median number of papers published after Ph.D. completion was also lower among women. As regards pre- and postdoctoral research, the data showed that early scientific output may be a good predictor of subsequent productivity in both gender groups. The results also indicated that articles by female Ph.D. holders were cited significantly more often, even when self-citations were excluded.

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Authors: Anna Villarroya, Maite Barrios, Angel Borrego, and Amparo Frías


In this study we analyse gender equality in the preparation, supervision and defence of PhD theses in Spain in the period 1990–2004. The results indicate a tendency towards greater equality in the number of men and women successfully completing doctoral studies. However, the gender imbalance among thesis supervisors and on thesis assessment boards is more apparent, with a predominance of male academics. Moreover, the gender of the PhD student is clearly related to the gender of the supervisor, and both are related to the gender of the members of the assessment boards of PhD theses in Spain.

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