Authors:M. Freitas, S. Almeida, A. Pacheco, I. Dionísio, C. Repolho, A. Caseiro, C. Pio, and C. Alves
In 2006, elementary schools of inner-city Lisbon, Portugal were given questionnaires to identify respiratory problems. In
1,175 children aged 5–10 years, 27.7% reported rhinitis, 2.5% reported hay fever and 25.9% reported asthma symptoms. April
and August were the months with higher incidence of rhinitis, with a considerable difference nonetheless (10.5% and 2.3%,
respectively.). The former trends are addressed here by using meteorological data, PM2.5, and its elemental speciation. Mann-Whitney U-tests were applied to the data sets. Significantly higher values were found for humidity, K+, NH4+, Sb and Zn in April, and for temperature, Cl−, Mg2+ and Na+ in August. Commuter and heavy-duty traffic may contribute to rhinitis episodes.
Authors:M. Freitas, I. Dionísio, D. Beasley, S. Almeida, H. Dung, C. Repolho, A. Pacheco, A. Caseiro, C. Pio, and C. Alves
The number of children reporting rhinitis by month is compared with air pollutant concentrations in Lisbon, where they live
and attend school. INAA, ionic exchange chromatography and data accessed through the internet were statistically processed
with the children rhinitis data. Association between rhinitis and atmospheric variables are processed using Spearman non-parametric
statistics and principal component analysis. It is pointed out that traffic, soil resuspension from traffic, meteorological
conditions, and industry air pollutants contribute to respiratory trends. Ir (Pt group), a vehicle catalyst, may have some
Authors:S. Almeida, M. Freitas, C. Repolho, I. Dionísio, H. Dung, C. Pio, C. Alves, A. Caseiro, and A. Pacheco
Recent health studies evidence that epidemiological studies must be combined with accurate analyses of the physico-chemical
properties of the particles in order to determine the effects of atmospheric aerosols on human health. The project “Atmospheric
Aerosol Impacts on Human Health” focuses on the chemical characterization of PM2.5 aerosols with the aim to analyze the health
risks associated with exposure to aerosols and understand how their chemical composition contributes to the toxicity and human
health problems traditionally associated with fine particles. During one year, PM2.5 was collected daily, with a Partisol
sampler, in the centre of Lisbon. The aerosols were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis and Ion Chromatography in order
to determine their chemical composition. In parallel the clinical situation of students from the schools situated around the
sampler was followed. The incidence of asthma and rhinitis episodes was registered. Results showed that students were exposed
to PM2.5 concentrations that exceed the World Health Organization recommended levels. A marked sea influence in the aerosol
characteristics was identified by the use of air masses trajectories and by the concentrations of chloride, sodium and magnesium.
Authors:S. Almeida, M. Freitas, C. Repolho, I. Dionísio, H. Dung, A. Caseiro, C. Alves, C. Pio, and A. Pacheco
The goal of this research is to determine trends and sources of airborne particulates in the centre of Lisbon, by using speciated
particulate-matter data and back-trajectory analyses. Results showed that, in 2007, the annual PM2.5 concentration exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels. PM2.5 diurnal variability and the ratio between weekdays’ and weekends’ concentrations indicated that traffic contributed highly
to decreasing air quality. Air back-trajectory analysis showed that maritime air mass transport had a significant role on
air quality in Lisbon, promoting the decrease of anthropogenic aerosol concentrations.
Authors:C. Munita, R. Paiva, M. Alves, P. de Oliveira, and E. Momose
Forty one ceramic fragment samples from Rezende archaeological site, Centralina city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were analyzed using INAA to determine the concentration of 24 chemical elements: As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn. Three multivariate statistical methods, cluster, discriminant and principal components analysis were performed on the data set. The results showed that the large majority of the samples (94%) can be considered to be manufactured using the same source of raw material.
Authors:C.S. Munita, R.P. Paiva, M.A. Alves, E.F. Momose, and M. Saiki
Archaeological ceramic fragments from Água Limpa site, in São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson correlation coefficient, cluster and principal components analysis were used to interpret the concentration data. Rare earth and alkaline elements were highly correlated. Six principal components explained 74.9% of the total variance and five clusters were found. The sample chemical composition showed that all samples have the same provenance.
Authors:Crislene Morais, C. Gameiro, P. Santa-Cruz, S. Alves Jr, L. Soledade, and A. Souza
of general formula Ln(btfa)3L, where Ln=Eu
or Tb, btfa=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione, L=1,10-phenanthroline (phen)
or 2,2-bipyridine (bipy), were synthesized
by reacting the corresponding metal chloride with the proper β-diketone
and the other ligand. The complexes were obtained in the powder form and were
characterized by photoluminescence and TG. Their thermal decomposition was
studied by non-isothermal thermogravimetric techniques. The Eu(btfa)3bipy
complex presented the highest thermal stability and it melts before being
decomposed. The complex Eu(btfa)3phen presented the
largest activation energy for a heating rate of 5C min–1.
Authors:J. A. Alves da Silva, E. Muramoto, M. T. C. P. Ribela, J. R. Rogero, and M. A. P. Camillo
The use of radiotracers in the research of animal venom has been scarce, although it allows an excellent approach to follow
the process of bioavailability, biodistribution and kinetics of toxins. The purpose of this study was to assess gyroxin action
mechanism, transport, compartments and action sites. This toxin is a thrombin-like and causes the barrel rotation syndrome.
The gyroxin was labeled with 125I and used as a tracer for the in vivo assay in mice. Blood samples and organs were collected at different time intervals,
weighed and analyzed in a gamma-counter. The data was related with tissues distribution of protease activated receptor (PAR).
Biodistribution assay allowed dividing the organs into three groups. The first one with the organs that followed the blood
kinetics, the second with the organs related to metabolisms and elimination, and the third with the organs in which the gyroxin
concentration increased during the observation period.