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  • Author or Editor: D. Szakos x
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The aim of this research was to assess the consumer habits of lactose sensitive persons in case of lactose-free products and their other shopping aspects for development of new, dairy-based lactose-free products. The research was based on face-to-face questionnaire survey, and those who declared to be lactose sensitive were analysed. Among them, only half of the women (49.3%) and one third of the men (34.6%) were medically proven lactose sensitive, so more than half of the respondents declared themselves affected on the basis of self-diagnosis. Our results show that reliably regular customers of lactose-free products are women and persons with medical diagnosis, high educational degree, and under the age of 30. The lactose-free consumer group prefers the following product features: lactose-free label; rich in calcium, vitamins, and fibre, and free of carbohydrate, sugar, and gluten. Only two-thirds of lactose sensitive customers (66.7%) consume lactose-free products regularly, so it can be assumed that the level of knowledge of this disease, its treatment, and the importance of lactose-free dairy products among these persons is insufficient. This could be solved with education, advertisement, and other information opportunities.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
V. László
D. Szakos
V. Csizmadiáné Czuppon
, and
Gy. Kasza


Consumer trust is essential to any market but particularly relevant to the food sector. Sustainable food systems require integration of small-scale food producers, for them consumer trust is pivotal. However, comprehensive measurement of consumer trust regarding local food is a less explored area. Based on the adjusted version of Benson's trust toolkit, local food trust was measured on four levels. This approach, connecting locality/proximity to food-related trust, was tested with a representative quantitative consumer survey (n = 1,001) in Hungary. Interpersonal trust, general organisation trust, local food chain trust, and local food product trust were measured on a 5-point Likert scale. Correlation and boxplot analysis conducted revealed that trust levels correlate significantly but remain independent from demographic characteristics, indicating that trust in local food is not region-, education-, or income-specific amongst Hungarian consumers. A relatively high level of consumer trust was measured for local food products and producers compared to other stakeholders, strengthening the assumption for the proximity-trust relationship regarding food. This is a key factor for small-scale food producers: only shared values with the local community and earned trust can attract customers despite less flexibility with pricing and limited capacity for advertising.

Open access