Authors:Mu-Hsuan Huang, Han-wen Chang and Dar-Zen Chen
have been regarded as the most significant output indicating the research
performance of universities. This paper uses ISI Essential Science
Indicators (ESI) database to investigate the academic performance of
research-oriented universities in Taiwan, adopting the bibliometric method from
both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. The data cover the time span
for 11 years from 1993 to 2003. The performance indicators applied in this
study includes the number of papers, the number of citations, the average
citations per paper, the number of highly cited papers, the number of hot
papers, and the number of top papers. The research performance and the strength
of those universities are revealed in this study, and it is found that National
Taiwan University leads among these universities though each university still
shows strengths in various specific fields.
Authors:Dar-Zen Chen, Wen-Yau Lin and Mu-Hsuan Huang
The aim of this article is to develop new patent indicators for evaluating technological innovation competitiveness between
companies. A novel indicator representing an industrial’s patent performance, Essential Patent Index (EPI), was developed
by incorporating information on who cited these patents and when these patents were cited, based on the assumption that both
contribute to meaningful quality assessment. By combining EPI and Chi’s well known Technological Strength (TS) indicator,
a second novel indicator Essential Technological Strength (ETS) was developed to represent the innovation competitiveness
of an individual company. In this study, patent performance of three high-tech industries in Taiwan were analyzed using ETS
as well as the traditional TS for comparison. Results from this analysis demonstrated that ETS provided better insights by
clearly verifying the latent influence of citations, reinforcing the impact of essential patents, and aggrandizing the differences
of innovation competitiveness between companies.
Authors:Mu-Hsuan Huang, Li-Yun Chiang and Dar-Zen Chen
This paper uses bibliographic coupling analysis to plot out a patent citation map. It explores the current research and development
in the high-tech electronic companies in Taiwan, and the relationship between companies and industries. Fifty-eight high-tech
electronic companies under this study, between 1998 and 2000, obtained 4162 patents from U.S., and cited 24,852 patents during
these years. Through the data from bibliographic coupling analysis, the paper categorizes these companies into 6 major groups:
semiconductor, peripheral, scanners, notebook / monitor, system, IC design / packaging. This research also uses multidimensional
scaling to plot out a patent citation map, graphically displaying the association among the groups. The result shows a higher
similarity among companies in semiconductor sector, whereas the distinction between industries grows more and more ambivalent,
even overlapping in some cases.
Authors:Dar-Zen Chen, Chang-Pin Lin, Mu-Hsuan Huang and Chen-Yu Huang
The objective of this research is to develop a new patent bibliometric performance measure by using modified citation rate
analyses with dynamic backward citation windows. Cited half-life employed in bibliometrics was adopted in order to establish
a model of annual patent backward citation windows. Based on the dynamic behavior of backward citation windows, the annual
backward patent citation rates for each technology domain can be calculated to measure its bibliometric performance. It was
found that the dynamic backward citation window represents more accurately the citation cycle time which is a key factor on
technology assessment. Because different technology domain may have disparate attributes, a normalized backward citation rate
was developed to measure the corresponding rank for each domain respect to the entire industry. Three technology domains were
then chosen for demonstrative case studies which represent semiconductor, LCD, and drug industries.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is divided into three subfields, including Chinese medicine, Chinese herb and acupuncture, attracts increasing attentions due to its challenging and significant medical values. This study employs bibliometric analysis to examine the profile of publication activity in TCM field as well as its subfields. The data are retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded database during 1980–2009, and 16,536 papers are identified for analysis. Generally speaking, proportions of papers in subfield of acupuncture decreased dramatically, while the proportions of papers of Chinese medicine and Chinese herb rose increasingly. This study finds that East Asia has the largest number of TCM papers, followed by North America and Europe. Furthermore, while China is ranked first in terms of the amount of TCM publications, USA gains the highest percentage of citations. As for regional specialty, mainly, scholars in East Asia publish intensively in Chinese medicine, while most of the scholars in North America and Europe probe into the study of acupuncture. In the latest two decades, China took the first place over Japan in subfields of both Chinese medicine and Chinese herb, while the US has always kept the largest share in acupuncture with a marked upward trend. Regarding the top-ranked TCM institution, Chinese Academy of Sciences located in China, is ranked first in the subfields of Chinese medicine and Chinese herb as well. As for Kyung Hee University, which is located in South Korea, is ranked first in the number of acupuncture papers and Harvard University is ranked first in number of acupuncture citations.
This study applies bibliometric analysis to investigate the quantity and citation impact of scientific papers in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The data are collected from 19 CAM journals in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E) database during 1980–2009, and 17,002 papers are identified for analysis. The study analyzes the document types, geographical and institutional distribution of the authorship, including international scientific collaboration. This study suggests that the major type of document is original article. The CAM papers are mostly published by North America, East Asia, and European countries, of which publications authored in East Asia are cited most. Country-wise, major contributors of CAM papers are from USA, People's Republic of China, India, England and Germany. India has the highest CPP value, attracting high attentions in CAM community. This article also finds that international co-authorship in the CAM field has increased rapidly during this period. In addition, internationally collaborated publications generate higher citation impact than papers published by authors from single country. Finally, the research identifies productive institutions in CAM, and China Medical University located in Taiwan is the most productive organization.
Authors:Dar-Zen Chen, Han-Wen Chang, Mu-Hsuan Huang and Feng-Cheng Fu
Summary This paper uses United States patent classification analysis to study the development of core technologies and key industries in Taiwan over the last 25 years, from 1978 to 2002. After counting the number of Taiwan-held United States granted utility patents, the authors divide the years into three phases: from 1978 to 1994, with less than 500 patents each year; from 1995 to 1999, with 500-2,500 patents each year; from 2000 to 2002, with annual patents greater than 2,500. The results show that for both Taiwan’s core technologies and key industries, there was a great diversity at the first phase, while a mainstream forms and matures at the second and the third phases. However, industrial development at the third phase was more concentrated and focused than previous ones. Overall, Taiwan has clearly moved from a manufacturing-based economy to an innovation-based one, with its focus on high-tech industries during the previous 25 years.
China's economy and technology have experienced spectacular growth since the Opening-up Policy adopted in 1978. In order to explore the innovation process and development of China, this study examines the inventive activities and the collaboration pattern of university, industry and government (UIG) in China. This study analyzes the Chinese patent data retrieved from the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Three models of UIG relations which represent different triple helix configurations are introduced. According to the property of patent assignee, patent ownership can be divided into three types: individuals, enterprises, and universities and research institutes. Furthermore, enterprises can be classified into state-owned enterprise (SOE), private-owned enterprise (POE) and foreign enterprise (FE). The corresponding relationship of patent ownership with UIG is set up. Through analyzing the issued year, it is found that the inventive activities of China have experienced three developmental phases and have been promoted quickly in recent years. The achievement of innovation activities in China primarily falls on the enterprise, especially FEs and POEs. The innovation strengths of the three development phases have shifted from government to university and research institute and then industry. According to co-patent analysis, it is found that the collaboration between university and industry is the strongest and has been intensified in recent years, but other forms of collaboration among UIG have been weak. In addition, an innovation relation model of China was set up. The evolution process of innovation systems was explored, from etatistic model, followed by improved “laissez-faire” model, and then shifting toward triple helix model.
Acupuncture, the most important nonpharmacological therapy in traditional Chinese medicine, has attracted significant attention since its introduction to the Western world. This study employs bibliometric analysis to examine the profile of publication activity related to it. The data are retrieved from the database of Science Citation Index Expanded during 1980–2009, and 7,592 papers are identified for analysis. This study finds that almost 20 % of papers are published in CAM journals, and the average cited times per acupuncture paper is 8.69. While the most cited article has been cited 2,109 times, however, 38.15 % of total publications have never been cited. Europe has the largest amount of authored papers with high h-index values; the USA has the largest number of publications on and citations of acupuncture based on country distribution, and this has continued as a significant rising trend. The proportion of collaborative papers shows this upward trend on the worldwide scale while the percentage shares of national collaborations are the highest. The USA produces the most international collaborative documents, although South Korea occupies the highest percentage figure for international collaborative papers. International collaborative papers are the most frequently cited. The average number of authors per paper is 3.69 in the top eight countries/regions. Papers contributed by South Korea are authored by the most people. International collaboration papers are authored by more people, except in Taiwan. South Korea's Kyung Hee University is ranked first in terms of number of papers while Harvard University in the USA accounts for the largest proportion of citations. The University of Exeter, Harvard University and Karolinska Institute have the highest h-index values.
Since China adopted Open-Up and Reformed Policy for global collaboration, China's science and technology have experienced an astounding growth. Papers and patents encompass valuable scientific and technological (S&T) information and collaborative efforts. This article studies China's international S&T collaboration from the perspective of paper and patent analysis. The results show that China's total papers and patents have continuously increased from 2004 to 2008, the papers and patents resulting from China's international collaboration also present a steady growth. However, there is a decline in the share of international collaboration papers and patents with a certain range due to the rapid independent R&D. China's international scientific collaboration (ISC) is broadly distributed over many countries, the USA being the most important ISC partners. China's international technological collaboration (ITC) is mainly carried out with USA and Taiwan, and Taiwan has been the most significant ITC partner of when taking countries’ patent output into account. Besides, ISC shows a continuous raise of Chinese papers’ citation. Even the countries with a small amount of papers and ISC with China, exert a positive influence on the impact of citation of Chinese papers as well. However, ITC does not always play an active role in the improvement of citation impact of Chinese patents.