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We investigated the integration into the international scientific literature of articles published by researchers at the University of Granada (Spain) between 1976 and 1987, in journals published outside of Spain. The Science Citation Index was used to measure integration, and the articles were classified for comparison into eight fields (clinical medicine, experimental medicine, geology, chemistry, physics, biology, pharmaceutical science and mathematics). The minimum criterion for integration was considered fulfilled when the size of the two communities of citing authors considered (Spanish and non-Spanish) was equal, i.e., when the absolute number of citations in both communities was equal. On the basis of this criterion, articles in clinical medicine and experimental medicine were found to be integrated into the international literature. The regression lines for the number of citations per year in each field in the two communities of citing authors were parallel, indicating that integration of Spanish publications in these two fields was stationary. Of the fields found not to be integrated, the lines for pharmaceutical science citations in the two communities indicated little sign of future change in the proportion of Spanish to non-Spanish citations. Citations in the remaining five fields indicated a steady decrease in integration. We introduce the concept of the drag effect of national citations on citation indices in the international literature: a sharp increase in the number of Spanish articles published in non-Spanish journals may exceed the capacity of the international community to absorb, understand and cite these new publications.

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Here, the quantitative theory of translation is shown to be of great utility in describing scientific networks. In fact, we deduce a new Zipf's Law for the descriptors of a set of documents, based on the concepts of centres of interest and of irreversible parallel translations. This new law can be generalized to other phenomena, such as the distribution of the sizes of cocitation clusters. Finally, we have established the model, for descriptor presence in a network, which closely fits the values recorded.

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The fundamentals have been developed for a quantitative theory on the structure and dynamics of scientific networks. These fundamentals were conceived through a new vision of translation, defined mathematically as the derivative or gradient of the quality of the actors as a function of the coordinates for the space in which they perform. If we begin with the existence of a translation barrier, or an obstacle that must be overcome by the actors in order to translate, and if we accept the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution as representative of the translating capacity of the actors, it becomes possible to demonstrate the known principle of “success breeds success.” We also propose two types of elemental translation: those which are irreverisble and those which are in equilibrium. In addition, we introduce the principle of composition, which enables, from elemental translations, the quantification of more complex ones.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Guilherme Borges, Ricardo Orozco, Corina Benjet, Kalina I. Martínez Martínez, Eunice Vargas Contreras, Ana Lucia Jiménez Pérez, Alvaro Julio Peláez Cedrés, Praxedis Cristina Hernández Uribe, María Anabell Covarrubias Díaz Couder, Raúl A. Gutierrez-Garcia, Guillermo E. Quevedo Chavez, Yesica Albor, Enrique Mendez, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Philippe Mortier, and Hans-Juergen Rumpf

Background and aims

DSM-5 includes Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a condition for further study. While online and offline gaming may produce undesired negative effects on players, we know little about the nosology of IGD and its prevalence, especially in countries with emerging economies.


A self-administered survey has been employed to estimate prevalence of DSM-5 IGD and study the structure and performance of an instrument in Spanish to measure DSM-5 IGD among 7,022 first-year students in 5 Mexican universities that participated in the University Project for Healthy Students (PUERTAS), part of the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health International College Student Initiative.


The scale for IGD showed unidimensionality with factor loadings between 0.694 and 0.838 and a Cronbach’s α = .816. Items derived from gaming and from substance disorders symptoms mixed together. We found a 12-month prevalence of IGD of 5.2% in the total sample; prevalence was different for males (10.2%) and females (1.2%), but similar for ages 18–19 years (5.0%) and age 20+ (5.8%) years. Among gamers, the prevalence was 8.6%. Students with IGD were more likely to report lifetime psychological or medical treatment [OR = 1.8 (1.4–2.4)] and any severe role impairment [OR = 2.4 (1.7–3.3)]. Adding any severe role impairment to the diagnostic criteria decreased the 12-month prevalence of IGD to 0.7%.

Discussion and conclusions

Prevalence of DSM-5 IGD and the performance of diagnostic criteria in this Mexican sample were within the bounds of what is reported elsewhere. Importantly, about one in every seven students with IGD showed levels of impairment that would qualify them for treatment under DSM-5.

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