Authors:Sándor Fekete, Emese Andrásofszky, and Róbert Glávits
The objective of this trial was to study the effect of rancid feeds on the health status and growth of rats and to determine the pathological changes induced by dietary rancidity. Forty-two weaned male rats (body weight: 69.3 ± 1.0 g) were divided into seven experimental groups (n = 6 each). Rats in the different groups were fed diets containing meat-and-bone meal at an inclusion rate of 19 to 22%, low or high in peroxides and high in organic acids, with or without antioxidant. The diets were isoproteic (10%) and isolipidic (6%). During the 26-day-long trial (5 days for adjustment and 21 days for the main period) the body weight gain and the feed consumption were recorded. At the end of the trial detailed gross and histopathological examinations were performed. Feeding high-peroxide feed mixtures for 21 days significantly (P < 0.05) decreased feed intake and liveweight gain, while high organic acid concentration had only slight negative effects. Antioxidant supplementation alleviated the harmful effects, especially in the high-peroxide group. The ingestion of rancid feed mixtures and the subsequent decreased feed intake caused a decrease of glycogen content in the hepatocytes, accompanied by a slight centrolobular fatty infiltration. Peroxides caused lymphocyte depletion in the spleen, decreased the size of Malpighian bodies and the number of lymphoblasts, and altered the spermatogenesis. The protective effect of the antioxidant mixture seemed to be negligible in this respect.
Authors:István Hullár, András Valentin Vucskits, Erzsébet Berta, Emese Andrásofszky, András Bersényi, and József Szabó
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA), the two main compounds of humic substances (HSs), on copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) homeostasis. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine experimental groups. The control diet (AIN-93G formula) and the diets supplemented with 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% FA or HA were fed for 26 days. Cu and Zn concentrations of the large intestinal content (LIC), liver, kidney, femur and hair were determined. FA and HA did not influence significantly the Cu or Zn contents of the experimental diets, the rats’ feed intake, weight gain and the feed to gain ratio. Both FA and HA decreased the Cu concentrations of the LIC significantly and in a dose-related manner; however the absorption-stimulating effect of HA was more pronounced. FA increased the Cu content of the liver, but neither FA nor HA had a dose-dependent effect on it. FA or HA supplementations had no significant effect on the Cu concentration of the kidney. At the concentrations used, dietary FA or HA supplementations are not promising growth promoters. FA influences the Cu homeostasis unlike HA, because FA not only stimulates Cu absorption, but the extra quantity of absorbed Cu is retained in the organism. The stimulatory effect of HA on Zn absorption may not be manifested in Cu and Zn homeostasis, because of the tight connection of these microelements to FA and HA, which prevents the transmission of Zn from the ZnHA complex to the organs. As regards the effect of FA and HA on Cu and Zn homeostasis, both FA and HA stimulated the absorption of these microelements, but only FA increased the retention of Cu (in the liver) and Zn (in the kidney).
Authors:József Szabó, András Vucskits, Emese Andrásofszky, Erzsébet Berta, András Bersényi, László Börzsönyi, Vilmos Pálfi, and István Hullár
The aim of this study was to assess the age-related effects of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on the performance, immune response (from day 0 to 42) and macromineral content of femur ash of broilers. The DEB values of the purchased commercial broiler diets were modified with the addition of NH4Cl or NaHCO3 to formulate the diets (DEB 325, 250, 175, 100, 25 and −50 mmol/kg) for this investigation. A total of 396 chickens were divided into 6 treatment groups and fed with the experimental diets for 6 weeks. During the first two weeks of life, DEB did not influence feed intake and body weight gain; however, by the 21st day of age DEB 175 and between 22 and 42 days of age DEB 250 mmol/kg gave significantly better results than the control. DEB did not affect the macromineral concentrations of bone ash. The immune response of broilers on low DEB (< 175 mmol/kg) was faster and more intensive than that of chickens on diets with medium or high DEB (> 175 mmol/kg). It can be concluded that the optimal DEB value required for the best body weight gain is significantly influenced by the age of broilers. Our results call attention to the discrepancy between the decreasing DEB level of commercial broiler diets and the age-related increase of ‘electrolyte requirements’ of broilers. It is also interesting that DEB may influence not only the performance but also the immune response of broilers.
Authors:József Szabó, Emese Andrásofszky, Tamás Tuboly, András Bersényi, Andrea Weisz, Nikoletta Hetényi, and István Hullár
The objective of this study was designed to test whether supplementation of the diet with arginine (Arg) or glutamine (Gln) or their combination influences the production, organ weights and humoral immune response of broilers. A total of 432 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into 6 treatment groups: control, Arg-0.5%, Arg-1%, Gln-0.5%, Gln-1% and Arg-0.5%+Gln-0.5%. Drinking water and feed were provided ad libitum. On day 18 of the experiment 50% of chickens in each treatment group were immunised with bovine serum albumin. Ten and 21 days after immunisation blood samples were collected to determine the anti-albumin IgY titre, interleukin 6 (IL6) and interferon gamma (IFNG) and to measure the weight of the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus. Arg or Gln supplementation of the diets influenced neither the production nor the organ weights until 18 days of age. Between 18 and 39 days of age both Arg (0.5% and 1%) and Arg + Gln supplementation improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 3.7%, 6.3% and 4.9%, respectively, while Gln-1% worsened it by 15%. Immunisation slightly (−0.79%) depressed the body weight gain of broilers fed the control diet, which was significantly improved by both Arg (0.5 or 1%) and Arg + Gln supplementation. Immunisation increased the weight of the spleen, bursa and thymus and decreased that of the liver. Supplementation with 1% Gln depressed (−5.13%) the body weight gain of the immunised chickens but strongly stimulated the immune response. Supplementations with Arg and Gln did not influence the IL6 and IFNG level of the blood; however, on day 10 after immunisation these two parameters showed a negative correlation with each other. Regarding production, organ weights and immunity, Arg supplementation should be recommended in the grower phase, while Gln supplementation can be useful in pullets raised for egg production, where a good immune response to vaccinations is an important factor.
Authors:S. Gy. Fekete, I. Hullár, R. Romvári, Emese Andrásofszky, and Zs. Szendrő
The total body composition of 4×10 female, 5-month-old New Zealand White rabbits was determined, using direct chemical analysis and computerised tomography (CT). Ten non-pregnant rabbits (control) and 3 × 10 pregnant rabbits at days 14, 21 and 28 of gestation, respectively, were included in the study. With the advancement of pregnancy, the body weight (BW) of does significantly (P < 0.05) increased (control: 3255 g, day 28: 3938 g), while the dry matter, DM (control: 43.02%, day 28: 40.94%), ether extract, EE (control: 20.15%, day 28: 18.13%), crude protein, CP (control: 20.15%, day 28: 18.13%), and energy concentration decreased (control: 12.41 MJ/kg BW, day 28: 11.81 MJ/kg BW). During pregnancy the protein content of uteri (control: 12.24%, day 28: 49.45% of DM) and the retained energy in the form of uterus with fetuses (day 14: 0.824 MJ, day 28: 2.189 MJ) increased, while the dry matter (control: 82.39%, day 28: 28.96%) and ether extract content (control: 86.05%, day 28: 45.92% of DM) of uteri decreased. With the advancement of pregnancy the dry matter (day 14: 39.70%, day 28: 18.65%) and crude protein (day 14: 75.74%; day 28: 63.63% of DM) content and the number of fetuses (day 14: 8.8; day 28: 6.4) decreased, while their fat concentration (day 14: 10.13%, day 28: 24.34% of DM) increased. According to the equations created from the CT pictures, body fat (R2 = 0.871) and energy (R2 = 0.926) content can be predicted with high accuracy. The accuracy of predicting body protein content is much lower (R2 = 0.356), which can be improved by introducing the body weight as a new dependent variable (R2 = 0.797). It can also be concluded that, in contrast to other animal species, rabbit fetuses show considerable development not only in the last trimester of gestation but already from the second half of pregnancy.
Authors:Erzsébet Berta, Emese Andrásofszky, A. Bersényi, R. Glávits, A. Gáspárdy, and S. Gy. Fekete
The effects of dietary levels of manganese (Mn) in inorganic (MnO) and organic (Mn fumarate) forms were evaluated on cockerel chicks. A basal corn-soybean diet with 23 mg/kg Mn was supplemented with levels of 0, 30, 60 and 240 ppm Mn from both Mn sources. Each treatment was replicated in five pens of 10 chicks. The chicks were fed diets ad libitum from 14 to 49 days of age, after which five birds per treatment were sacrificed for pathomorphological examinations and analysis. The treatments did not exert significant effects on the body weight (BW), the feed/gain (F/G) ratio or the mortality rate. According to the necropsy findings, no growth retardation or emaciation occurred in either of the groups and the differences in the average absolute and relative organ weights were not significant (P ? 0.05). Tissue analysis indicated that the tibia showed the greatest response to Mn, followed by the liver and kidney. Accumulation in the tibia was higher (P < 0.05) with supplements of 30, 60 and 240 mg/kg from both Mn sources (3.71, 3.78, 4.44, and 3.68, 4.00, 4.36 mg/kg DM, MnO and Mn fumarate, respectively) compared to the control group (3.21 mg/kg). Accumulation in the liver increased significantly (P < 0.05) only with supplements of 60 and 240 ppm independently of the Mn source (12.7, 14.2, and 14.0, 14.9 mg/kg, respectively) compared to the control (9.8 mg/kg). Similarly, kidney tissue Mn was higher (P < 0.05) only with supplements of 60 and 240 ppm (12.8, 12.8, and 13.1, 12.5 mg/kg, respectively) compared to the control (10.2 mg/kg). At the same level of supplementation of the two Mn sources there were no significant differences (P ? 0.05) between the Mn concentrations of organs and tissues. Droppings sensitively reflected the intake, whereas blood plasma and feathers showed only the extreme Mn loading.
Authors:József Szabó, András Valentin Vucskits, Erzsébet Berta, Emese Andrásofszky, András Bersényi, and István Hullár
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA) as the two main compounds of humic substances, separately on Fe and Mn homeostasis. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 9 experimental groups. The control diet (AIN-93G formula) and diets supplemented with 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% HA or FA were fed for 26 days. Fe and Mn concentrations of the large intestinal content, liver, kidney, femur and hair were determined. No significant differences were observed in the production parameters. The effects of FA and HA on iron homeostasis were significantly different. FA proved to be a good iron source, and slightly increased the iron content of liver and kidney, but — up to a dietary iron level of 52.7 mg/kg — it did not influence the efficiency of iron absorption. Above a dietary iron level of 52.7 mg/kg down-regulation of Fe absorption can be assumed. HA significantly stimulated the iron uptake and there was no down-regulation of Fe absorption up to 0.8% dietary HA supplementation level (61.5 mg Fe/kg diet). In the HA groups the iron content of the liver and kidney decreased significantly, suggesting that in spite of the better Fe absorption, the HA—Fe complex does not provide iron to the investigated organs. Neither FA nor HA supplementation influenced the Fe content of the femur and hair and slightly decreased the Mn concentration in the large intestinal content. This effect was significant (with a 22.7% Mn concentration decrease) only at the HA supplementation rate of 0.8%. Neither FA nor HA influenced significantly the Mn concentrations of the liver, kidney and femur. The Mn concentration of the hair in rats receiving FA- or HA-supplemented diets was higher than in the control rats; however, this result needs further confirmation.
Authors:Kinga Fodor, L. Zöldág, S. Gy. Fekete, A. Bersényi, A. Gáspárdy, Emese Andrásofszky, Margit Kulcsár, F. Eszes, and M. Shani
An experiment was carried out with young male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits to establish live body weight changes, body measurements, body composition and sexual maturity as a function of feeding intensity. Animals in Group 1 ('AL', n = 10) were fed ad libitum, while those in Group 2 ('RS', n = 10) received restricted feeding corresponding to 70% of the ad libitum level. The starting liveweights were practically the same (0.907 ± 0.146 and 0.911 ± 0.147 kg in Group AL and Group RS, respectively). The feeding trial lasted from 6 to 22 weeks of age. The average body weight was significantly higher in Group AL from 7 to 22 weeks of age. At 22 weeks of age the body weight of RS rabbits was 85.64% of the weight of AL animals (3.22 ± 0.52 kg and 3.76 ± 0.33 kg, respectively). Average body weights of RS males at 8, 9, 11, 19 and 21 weeks of age were similar to those of ad libitum fed (AL) animals at 7, 8, 10, 15 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. The growth of bucks fed restricted tended to be allometric. The most significant difference was found at 16 and 18 weeks of age, while the lowest difference occurred at 6, 12, 15 and 19 weeks of age. It can be stated that low-intensity feeding up to slaughtering weight causes backwardness in rear cannon length and this backwardness remains also after the 15th week, which is well over the optimal slaughtering age. Based on the present data, the 70% restricted feeding cannot be recommended either for the future breeding bucks or for broiler males reared for slaughter. To determine the major chemical components of the body, rabbits were euthanised. Original dry matter and crude fat content of the body significantly (P < 0.05) decreased under restricted feeding (41.42%; 32.48% and 16.73%; 7.35%) while the percentage of protein within the dry matter increased (49.6%; 65.0%) and fat decreased (40.17%; 22.1%) significantly. Libido unambiguously decreases as a consequence of feed deprivation. The most conspicuous difference was found in the level of blood testosterone. Although a few RS bucks produced semen but only much later than the rabbits fed ad libitum. On the other hand, there was no difference in the motility of spermatozoa and ejaculate volume in comparison with AL animals. There was no relationship between the body fat content and the reproductive status of bucks in the present trial.
Authors:Kinga Fodor, S. Gy. Fekete, L. Zöldág, A. Bersényi, A. Gáspárdy, Emese Andrásofszky, Margit Kulcsár, and F. Eszes
Twenty-six 6-week old female New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups: ad libitum (AL) and 70% restricted (RS) feeding. At the beginning of the experiment the liveweights were practically the same: 0.99 ± 0.08 vs. 1.01 ± 0.08 kg in group AL and RS, respectively. At 18 weeks of age the body weight of Group RS rabbits was 84.7% (3.14 ± 0.24 kg) of the group AL (3.71 ± 0.31 kg). The apparent digestibility of crude protein was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in Group RS than in Group AL (76.5 ± 1.4 vs. 73.0 ± 2.7%). The daily water consumption was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (3.5 ml/g DM intake) in Group RS as compared to Group AL (1.9 ml/g DM). Since the average body weight in Group RS at 18 weeks was the same as that of Group AL at 14 weeks of age (3.14 kg), the comparison of the live body measures and indices was based on these ages. Animals fed ad libitum or restricted show no differences at the defined age in most live body measurements except in heart girth and rump width, which were significantly (p < 0.05) shorter in Group AL than in Group RS (29.3 ± 0.8, 5.7 ± 0.5 and 30.7 ± 1.0, 6.2 ± 0.3 cm, respectively). Body capacity was significantly (p < 0.05) smaller in Group AL, as the head capacity-body capacity proportion was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Group AL than in Group RS (1653.1 ± 134.5, 22.0 ± 2.5 and 1913.7 ± 168.7, 17.7 ± 1.9, respectively). Due to restricted feeding the growth of the head proved to be less intensive than that of the body at the same body weight. The body in these does tended to be wider. Since the head in comparison to length or capacity of the body was smaller in does fed 70% of ad libitum, it could be concluded that the development of body parts of restricted-fed does was unequal (allometric growth). The effect of feed restriction reflected in lower dry matter and fat, and a higher ash and protein content both in total body and in dry matter composition of rabbits at 18 weeks of age. Restricted feeding delayed sexual maturity (69 vs. 92% of rabbits) with later starting ovarian activity, weaker ovarian responsiveness, and a smaller number of tertiary follicles on the ovarian surface.
Authors:József Lehel, János Gál, Sándor Faragó, Erzsébet Berta, Emese Andrásofszky, Sándor Fekete, Míra Mándoki, Péter Budai, Éva Kormos, and Miklós Marosán
Mercury and lead concentrations were measured in the livers of cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), an aquatic bird species living and nesting in the special, highly protected nature conservation area of Kis-Balaton, Hungary. The measurements of metal concentrations were performed by atomic absorption spectrometry using the cold vapour method for mercury and the electrothermal method for lead. Mercury concentrations in the livers were significantly higher in the adult population (4.479 ± 3.336 mg/kg dry matter, DM) than in the juvenile birds (2.682 ± 2.087 mg/kg DM), indicating an increase of bioaccumulation with age. A similar pattern was not observed for lead. There were no statistical differences between males and females either in mercury or in lead concentrations. The average levels of mercury (3.580 ± 2.906 mg/kg DM) and lead (0.746 ± 0.499 mg/kg DM) were statistically different in the liver. No correlation was found between the concentrations of the two heavy metals. Recently, the wild birds have been chronically exposed to subtoxic amounts of metals which have a tendency to accumulate especially in the soft tissues.