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Authors: Macit Kalçık, Mahmut Yesin, Emrah Bayam, Mustafa Ozan Gürsoy, Ahmet Güner, Sabahattin Gündüz and Mehmet Özkan

Prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) is a life-threatening complication in pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves. Thrombolytic therapy (TT) has evolved as an effective treatment alternative to surgery, which is associated with very high maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity in these patients. Acute ischemic stroke may rarely occur during TT for PVT. Here, we present a pregnant patient who was complicated with cerebral thromboembolism during TT for PVT and successfully managed with continuation of TT.

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Authors: Macit Kalçık, Mahmut Yesin, Ahmet Güner, Emrah Bayam, Mucahit Yetim, Tolga Doğan, Lütfü Bekar, Oğuzhan Çelik and Yusuf Karavelioğlu

Introduction

Impaired coronary microcirculation, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction were reported etiological factors for microvascular angina (MVA). Recently, increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness has been associated with hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and coronary artery disease in general population. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the EAT thickness in patients with MVA.

Methods

This study enrolled 200 patients (83 males; mean age: 55.4 ± 8.2 years) who have been diagnosed with MVA and 200 controls (89 males; mean age: 54.4 ± 8.5 years). All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography, and EAT thickness was measured from a parasternal long-axis view as the hypoechoic space on the right ventricular free wall.

Results

The mean EAT thickness was significantly higher in MVA patients than the controls (5.5 ± 1.1 vs. 4.9 ± 0.7 mm; p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that increased EAT thickness was an independent predictor of MVA (OR = 1.183, 95% CI = 1.063–1.489; p = 0.023). In receiver operating characteristic curve analyses, EAT thickness above 5.3 mm predicted MVA with a sentivity of 68% and a specificity of 63% (AUC = 0.711, 95% CI = 0.659–0.762; p < 0.001).

Conclusions

The EAT thickness was observed significantly higher in MVA patients as compared to controls. Increased EAT thickness may be associated with mechanisms that play a major role in the pathogenesis of MVA.

Open access