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Abstract  

Complexes of cell–THPC–urea–ADP with transition metal ion Co2+ and lanthanide metal ions such as La3+, Ce4+, Nd3+ and Sm3+ have been prepared. The thermal behavior and smoke suspension of the samples are determined by TG, DTA, DTG and cone calorimetry. The activation energies for the second stage of thermal degradation have been obtained by following Broido equation. Experimental data show that for the complexes of cell–THPC–urea–ADP with the metal ions, the activation energies and thermal decomposition temperatures are higher than those of cell–THPC–urea–ADP, which shows these metal ions can increase the thermal stability of cell–THPC–urea–ADP. Moreover, these lanthanide metal ions can more increase thermal stability of samples than do the transition metal ion Co2+. The cone calorimetry data indicate that the lanthanide metal ions, similar to transition metal Co2+, greatly decrease the smoke, CO and CO2 generation of cell–THPC–urea–ADP, which can be used as smoke suppressants.

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Abstract  

An apparatus to study the battery system has been set up. The thermal effects of charge and discharge of Ni-MH batteries have been studied. The calorimetric measurements indicate that the net heat dissipation during charging is larger than that during discharging. It is observed that the ratio of heat dissipation to charging energy varies with charging capacity, and almost 90 percent of charging energy is lost as heat dissipation near the end of the charging process at 97.7 mA. A jump of thermal curve near the end of discharge due to a secondary electrode reaction has been observed.

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Abstract  

In this work some calorimetric measurements were also carried out on the electrorefining silver by using different current densities with a Calvet type microcalorimeter at room temperature. The ratio (R) of the measured heat (

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m) to the input electric energy (
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in) and the excess heat (
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ex), i.e., difference between
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m and
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in during the electrorefining process, were discussed in terms of general thermodynamics. It was found that the R and
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ex for silver were related with the current density or cell voltage employed in the experiment. The results obtained here also indicate that the heat generation under different conditions, such as different currents or voltages may be caused partially by the irreversibility of the process or by some unknown processes.

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Abstract  

This work discusses thermal behavior of Ni/MH battery with experimental methods. The present work not only provides a new way to get more exactly parameters and thermal model, but also concentrates on thermal behavior in discharging period. With heat generation rate gained by experiments with microcalorimeter, heat transport equations are set up and solved. The solutions are compared with experiment results and used to understand the reactions inside the battery. Experiments with microcalorimeter provide more reliable data to create precise thermal model.

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The study site is the Honghe National Nature Reserve, a Ramsar designated site on the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. We present results regarding the spatial pattern and structure of plant communities in these most important natural but continually diminishing freshwater wetlands of China to help promote both protection and restoration. By investigating three ecological levels (landscape, ecosystem and community), this paper quantifies the characteristics of spatial pattern with the aim to identify specific ecological correlations with different hydrogeomorphic features. Specifically, the research involves hierarchical mapping of vegetation types by use of remote sensed data, and the coupling of landscape indices with fluvial topographic zones that have been deduced by GIS from DEM. Statistics from historical survey data are also used to measure the degradation of marshes as well as the historical change of the hydrological regime. We found that dominant is the Calamagrostis angustifolia — Carex spp. community type, a wet meadow and marsh complex within the prevailing landscape mosaic of shrubland and meadow. The results suggest that the sites’ hydro-geomorphic character has decisive influence on plant community structure and composition. There is only limited direct human interference in the sites and, as a consequence, the spatial pattern of vegetation distribution is natural. However, changes to the hydrological regime as the result of extensive irrigation activity in the surrounding area has led to rapid degradation of marsh wetlands within the sites, which threatens the ecological status in this storehouse of “Natural Genes” in the reserve.

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Eight malting barley cultivars were used to investigate the cultivar and environmental effects on grain protein components and the relationships between protein fractions and β -amylase or β -glucanase activity. The results showed there was a great variation for three protein fraction (albumin, hordein and glutelin) contents over cultivars and locations, and a distinct difference in each protein fraction content between the locations for a given cultivars. Correlation analysis indicated that β -amylase activity was significantly correlated with three protein fraction contents and there was a negative correlation between glutelin content and β -amylase activity, but β -amylase activity positively correlated with albumin or hordein content. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between total protein content and β -glucanase activity, and we found the hordein and glutelin content did not show correlated with β -glucanase activity but the albumin content was a significantly negative correlation with β -glucanase activity.

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Casein peptides with calcium-chelating capacity were rapidly enriched by using a novel ceramic matrix (CM)-based Ti4+-IMAC adsorbent. The ability of calcium-chelating peptides (CCPs) to bind calcium and the physical properties of complexes formed between CCPs and calcium were investigated. Results demonstrated that the amount of calcium bound depended on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of casein hydrolysates. The highest calcium binding capacity (683 mg g−1) occurred when bovine casein was hydrolysed by pancreatin at a DH of 0.14%, meanwhile, the calcium content of CCPs-Ca complex exhibited the maximum level (134.96 mg g−1). In addition, CCPs showed a higher radical scavenging capacity (50 µg ml−1; 99% inhibition, or an equivalent activity of 9.91×10−3 M Trolox) compared to casein digest. Moreover, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to explore the interaction between CPPs and calcium, and the results demonstrated that phosphoserine residues as well as COO- groups of CCPs were involved in the formation of CCPs-Ca complex.

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