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• Author or Editor: F. Zhao
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Sums of almost equal prime cubes

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Author:
F. Zhao

Abstract

We prove that almost all integers N satisfying some necessary congruence conditions are the sum of j almost equal prime cubes with j = 5; 6; 7; 8, i.e., N = p 1 3 + ... + p j 3 with |p i − (N/j)1/3| ≦
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$N^{1/3 - \delta _j + \varepsilon }$$ \end{document}
(1 ≦ ij), for δ j = 1/45; 1/30; 1/25; 2/45, respectively.
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Estimation of the critical temperature of thermal explosion for azido-acetic-acid-2-(2-azido-acetoxy)-ethylester using non-isothermal DSC

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
H. Gao
,
F. Zhao
,
R. Hu
,
H. Zhao
, and
H. Zhang

Abstract

A method for estimating the critical temperatures (T b) of thermal explosion for energetic materials is derived from Semenov’s thermal explosion theory and the non-isothermal kinetic equation dα/dt=A 0 T B f(α)e−E/RT using reasonable hypotheses. The final formula of calculating the value of T b is
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\left( {\frac{B} {{T_b }} + \frac{E} {{RT_b^2 }}} \right)$$ \end{document}
(T bT e0=1. The data needed for the method, E and T e0, can be obtained from analyses of the non-isothermal DSC curves. When B=0.5 the critical temperature (T b) of thermal explosion of azido-acetic-acid-2-(2-azido-acetoxy)-ethylester (EGBAA) is determined as 475.65 K.
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A microcalorimetric study of the toxicity of two cobalt compounds on Escherichia coli DH5α growth

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
L. Yang
,
F. Xu
,
L. Sun
, and
Z. Zhao

Abstract

Microcalorimetry was applied to study the toxic action of two cobalt compounds such as bis(salicylideniminato-3-propyl)methylaminocobalt(II) (denoted as Co(II)) and Co(III) sepulchrate trichloride (denoted as Co(sep)3+) on (E. coli) DH5α. The power-time curves of the E. coli DH5α growth were determined, and the thermokinetics parameters such as the growth rate constant k, the maximum power output P m and the time (t m) corresponding to the P m were obtained. The half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Co(II) and Co(sep)3+ to E. coli DH5α were 15 and 42.1 mg mL−1, respectively. The experimental results revealed that the toxicity of the Co(II) compound was larger than that of Co(sep)3+. On the other hand, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that the two cobalt compounds had the same toxic mechanism on E. coli DH5α, which was attributed to the damage of cell wall of the bacteria caused by both Co(II) and Co(sep)3+. Furthermore, accumulation of intracellular cobalt of E. coli DH5α, due to the interaction of Co(II) or Co(sep)3+ and E. coli DH5α, has been found by using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analytical technique.

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Microcalorimetric studies on the antimicrobial actions of different cephalosporins

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
L. Yang
,
F. Xu
,
L. Sun
,
Z. Zhao
, and
C. Song

Abstract

Microcalorimetry was applied to study the effect of cephalosporins (cefazolin sodium and cefonicid sodium) on the E. coli growth. The microbial activity was recorded as power-time curves through an ampoule method with a TAM Air Isothermal Microcalorimeter at 37°C. The parameters such as the growth rate constant (k), inhibitory ratio (I), the maximum power output (P m) and the time corresponding to the maximum power output (t m) were calculated. The change tendencies of k, with the increasing of concentration (C) of the two cephalosporins, are similar which show that cefazolin sodium and cefonicid sodium have the same inhibitory mechanism. The experimental results reveal that cefonicid sodium has a stronger antibacterial activity towards E. coli than that of cefazolin sodium and this was coincide with the clinical manifestations.

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Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of 1,7-Diazido-2,4,6-trinitrazaheptane and its Application in Propellants

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Z. Dang
,
F. Zhao
,
S. Li
,
C. Yin
, and
R. Hu

Abstract

The thermal decomposition characteristics of1,7-diazido-2,4,6-trinitrazaheptane (DATH) and multi-component systems containing DATH were studied by using DSC, TG and DTG techniques. Three –NO2 groups in the DATH molecule break away first from the main chain when DATH is heated up to 200C. Following this process, the azido groups and the residual molecule decompose rapidly to release a great deal of heat within a short time. In the multi-component systems, DATH undergoes a strong interaction with the binder of the double-base propellant and a weak interaction with RDX. The burning rates of the two propellants were determined by using a Crawford bomb. The results showed that the burning rate rises by about 19–66% when 23.5%DATH is substituted for RDX in a minimum smoke propellant. Meanwhile, the N2 level in the combustion gases is enhanced, which is valuable for a reduction of the signal level of the solid propellant.

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Oxidative stress of maize roots caused by a combination of both salt stress and manganese deprivation

Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
H.Q. Zhao
,
L. Wang
,
J. Hong
,
X.Y. Zhao
,
X.H. Yu
,
L. Sheng
,
C.Z. Hang
,
Y. Zhao
,
A.A. Lin
,
W.H. Si
, and
F.S. Hong

Salt stress impaired Mn imbalance and resulted in accumulation of ROS, and caused oxidative stress to plants. However, very little is known about the oxidative damage of maize roots caused by exposure to a combination of both salt stress and Mn deprivation. Thus the main aim of this study was to determine the effects of a combination of salt stress and Mn deprivation on antioxidative defense system in maize roots. Maize plants were cultivated in Hoagland’s media. They were subjected to 80 mM NaCl administered in the Mn-present Hoagland’s or Mn-deficient Hoagland’s media for 14 days. The findings indicated that the growth and root activity of maize seedlings cultivated in a combination of both salt stress and Mn deprivation were significantly inhibited; the compatible solute accumulation, malondialdehyde, carbonyl, 8-OHdG, and ROS were higher than those of the individual salt stress or Mn deprivation as expected. Nevertheless, the antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, glutathione and thiol were lower than those of the individual salt stress or Mn deprivation. In view of the fact that salt stress impaired Mn nutrition of maize seedlings, the findings suggested that Mn deprivation at the cellular level may be a contributory factor to salt-induced oxidative stress and related oxidative damage of maize roots.

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Quantitative trait loci for the diurnal flag leaf starch content during the early grain-filling stage in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
Y. Zhao
,
J. Wang
,
R.L. Zhao
,
X.Y. Li
,
X.F. Yang
,
S.H. Zhang
,
J.C. Tian
, and
X.J. Yang

Starch is a product of photosynthetic activities in leaves. Wheat yields largely depend on photosynthetic carbon fixation and carbohydrate metabolism in flag leaves. The mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with flag leaf starch content (FLSC) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was completed using unconditional and conditional QTL analyses. The FLSC of this population during the early grain-filling stage was measured at six stages in six environments. Combining unconditional and conditional QTL mapping methods, eight unconditional QTLs and nine conditional QTLs were detected, with five QTLs identified as unconditional and conditional QTLs. Four unconditional QTLs (i.e. qFLS-1B, qFLS-1D-1, qFLS-4A, and qFLS-7D-1) and one conditional QTL (i.e. qFLS-3A-1) were identified in two of six environments. Two QTLs (qFLS-1D-2 and qFLS-7D-1), which significantly affected the FLSC, were identified using the unconditional QTL mapping method, while three QTLs (i.e. qFLS-1A, qFLS-3A-1, and qFLS-7D-1) were detected using the conditional QTL mapping method. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic mechanism and regulatory network underlying the diurnal FLSC in wheat.

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Thermal behavior, non-isothermal decomposition reaction kinetics and thermal-safety evaluation on N-2,4-dinitrophenyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine under two different pressures

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
B. Yan
,
H. X. Ma
,
N. N. Zhao
,
T. Mai
,
J. R. Song
,
F. Q. Zhao
, and
R. Z. Hu

Abstract

As N-2′,4′-dinitrophenyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine (DNPDNAZ) is an important derivative of 3,3-dinitroazetidine, its thermal behavior was studied under 0.1 and 2 MPa by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. The results of this study show that there are one melting process and two exothermic decomposition processes. Its kinetic parameters of the intense exothermic decomposition process were obtained from the analysis of the DSC curves. The activation energy and the mechanism function under 0.1 MPa are 167.26 kJ mol−1 and f(α) = 3(1 + α)2/3[(1 + α)1/3− 1]−1/2, respectively, and the said parameters under 2 MPa are 169.30 kJ mol−1 and f(α) = 3(1 + α)2/3[(1 + α)1/3− 1]−1/2, respectively. The specific heat capacity of DNPDNAZ was determined using a continuous C p mode of micro-calorimeter. Using the relationship between C p and T with the thermal decomposition parameters, the time of the thermal decomposition from initialization to thermal explosion (adiabatic time-to-explosion, t TIAD), the self-accelerating decomposition temperature (T SADT ), thermal ignition temperature (T TIT), critical temperatures of thermal explosion (T b), and half-life (t 1/2) were obtained to evaluate its thermal safety under different pressures.

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Study on interaction between antibiotics and Escherichia coli DH5α by microcalorimetric method

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
L. Yang
,
F. Xu
,
L. Sun
,
Z. Tan
,
H. Tan
,
Z. Zhao
, and
J. Liang

Abstract

A microcalorimetric technique based on the bacterial heat output was applied to evaluate the influence of antibiotics PIP (Piperacillin Sodium) and composite preparation of PIP and SBT (Sulbactam Sodium) on the growth of E. coli DH5α. The power–time curves of the growth metabolism of E. coli DH5α were studied using a TAM Air Isothermal Microcalorimeter at 37C. By analyzing the power–time curves, the parameters such as growth rate constants (k), inhibitory ratio (I), the maximum heat power (P m) and the time of the maximum heat power (t m) were obtained. The results show that different concentrations of antibiotics affect the growth metabolism of E. coli DH5α. The PIP in the concentration range of 0–0.05 g mL–1 has a stimulatory effect on the E. coli DH5α growth, while the PIP of higher concentrations (0.05 –0.25 g mL–1) can inhibit its growth. It seems that the composite preparation composed of PIP and SBT cannot improve the inhibitory effect on E. coli DH5α as compared with the PIP.

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Prospect of wind energy application in China’s oilfields for heating

International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors:
M. Zheng
,
Y. Tian
,
H. Teng
,
J. Hu
,
F. Wang
,
Y. Zhao
, and
L. Yu

In this paper, the wind energy resource in China’s oilfields is analyzed, the difference between China’s energy consumption structure and that of the world in average is analyzed as well, and the application prospect of wind heating technology in China’s oilfields is discussed as an example to reform China’s energy consumption structure. It shows that it is possible to use wind energy as an appropriate heat resource or supplementary heat source in some oilfields to supply heat energy for oil heating and living, more room to improve the energy resource utilization in various fields in China remain. It is a benefit to both oilfield and society to improve energy saving and environments.

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