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Hungarian Medical Journal
Authors: Solomon O. Ugoya, Emmanuel I. Agaba, Nimzing G. Ladep, Fabian H. Puepet and Adesola Ogunniyi

Background: Cognitive dysfunction is a common source of morbidity and mortality, usually observed in late stages of diabetes complications. Dementia is one of the commonest and most disabling late life mental disorders. The fact that data are scanty in the tropic cannot be overemphasized. There is a need to describe the association of cognitive dysfunction among our diabetics and its attendant risks such as duration of DM, age of patient, presence of hypertension and glycaemic control. Methods: a sample size of 180 patients was obtained with 120 diabetic subjects and 60 non-diabetics as controls. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was used to grade the severity of cognitive states. Result: twenty-six (21.7%) of the diabetic subjects had cognitive dysfunction with a score of less than twenty-four based on the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) while 6 (10.0%) of the controls had dementia. Conclusion: This study clearly shows that in a clinic setting, diabetes is associated with a greater trend toward impairments of cognitive function than in the non-diabetic population.

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Hungarian Medical Journal
Authors: Solomon O. Ugoya, Mayowa O. Owolabi, Tokunbo A. Ugoya, Fabian H. Puepet, Godwins O. Echejoh and Adesola Ogunniyi

Background: Over three hundred million people worldwide were estimated to be become diabetic by year 2025. The rates of both obesity and malnutrition are on the increase worlwide. The goal of this study was to describe the relationship of body mass index (BMI) and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in persons with diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods: A cross-sectional analysis of BMI and peripheral neuropathy was conducted among one hundred and twenty diabetic subjects, who were grouped based on presence or absence of DPN. Ninety of the diabetic persons had peripheral neuropathy, while thirty of the diabetic persons had no neuropathy. DPN was determined only by clinical assessment using an aspect of the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). Result: The two groups were not different in BMI, total cholesterol and high density lipoproteins (HDL). The group without peripheral neuropathy had better glycaemic control; HB A1C = 5.9 ± 2.5 (%), shorter mean duration of diabetes = 5.3 ± 3.6 years and younger age. More of those with peripheral neuropathy were underweight (six compared to none ‘0’ of those without neuropathy). Similar result was obtained for morbid obesity ‘class 3’, although BMI had no significant effect on DPN after controlling for age, duration of DM and glycaemic control. Discussion and conclusion: Obesity is an index of insulin resistance which may account for poor glycaemic control and predispose to peripheral neuropathy and other complications. Weight loss depicts severity of type 1 DM which may account for complications. This pattern also depicts the trend in a sub-Saharan African city like ours with uneven distribution of wealth and resources hence the poor result in both the underweight and obese class 3.

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