The peridynamic material model (PMM) is a new way to describe the material failures with discontinuities. Earlier works, presented by S. Silling, F. Bubaru and etc. introduced the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics of peridynamic material. In the recent work, the isotropic hardening plastic extension of PMM is presented. To solve the nonlinear integral equations of the problem the modified Newton method is used with mesh-less spatial discretization. At last some example shows the similarities and different between the results of classical and peridynamic plasticity.
Authors:Klára Czimre, Gábor Kozma, Károly Teperics, György Szabó and István Fazekas
The growing significance of renewable energy resources has been one of the most important processes in the field of energy management for the past two decades. This is due to phenomena related to environmental protection, security of supply, economic and rural development, as well as to the abundance of financial incentives (EU grants, constructive national off-take regime). As a consequence of this, the paper concentrates on the general and territorial characteristics of the EU financial instruments for Hungary in the 2007–2013 budgetary period with the objective to enhance the dissemination of renewable energy resources. As an outcome of our research, three very important conclusions were drawn. First of all, less developed regions were more active in submitting proposals though the more developed regions reached higher success rates. Secondly, it was noticed that the “identity” of the successful tenderers influenced the average volume of proposals to a considerable extent. Thirdly, in the case of the successful proposals, the development level and size (of settlements) of the territorial units (districts) had a direct impact on the identity of the applicants and on the average size of proposals.
The object of the examination is a typical office building of the 1990s, owned by a multinational company -Siemens- dedicated to energy awareness. The building also meets the energy efficiency category ‘A’ under the 7/2006 TNM Hungarian regulations concerning the energy performance definition of buildings. However, demand has emerged to implement additional changes to reduce energy usage whilst keeping the current climate comfort or even improving it. International experience forecasts around 30% energy saving potential due to optimization of the building automation and energy management system, and thus the interaction and collaboration between the building geometry, structures and services systems. The project has been built in the IDA ICE complex building energy simulation program. Running a one-year dynamic simulation will provide data that can be compared with the measured data of the actual building, so the model can be adjusted and validated to real data. After the calibration it is now possible to test the ideas under safe conditions, in a virtual surrounding. Once a particular vision of the model is proven to work effectively, it is possible to apply this to the real building control management as well.
Authors:Gábor Szántó, István Kádas, Tamás Kárpáti and László Hegedűs
Various (±)-trans-2-arylnitrocyclohexane derivatives were hydrogenated to the corresponding amines over a Pd/C catalyst in methanol at 25–60 °C
and 1–12 bar. These (±)-trans-2-arylcyclohexylamines are important and valuable key intermediates for the stereoselective synthesis of phenantridine-based
Amaryllidaceae alkaloid analogues having cytostatic activity.
This research aims at demonstrating techniques in complex dynamic building energy simulation methods that greatly reduce the otherwise very time-consuming - in particular cases even week-long - computation time of simulation models, however marginal difference arises in the energy results of the simulations. Different test simulations were created to examine how to simplify the models without altering the energy and comfort results, which lead to reduce also the working hours spent on building the model. The building physics behavior of the zones, heating and cooling equipment in the complex model were studied and tested to understand how those can be used, merged or simplified in order to speed up both computation time and model building phase. The IDA ICE complex dynamic building energy simulation program offers two methods - periodic and dynamic - for calculation, which were compared in this program. Test simulations provide information about possible differences between the results of these calculation methods, in order to define the appropriate use of these methods.