Authors:Péter Tanos, József Kovács, Ilona Kovácsné Székely and István Gábor Hatvani
The River Tisza is one of Central Europe's most important rivers. In the last one and a half century numerous anthropogenic activities have influenced its watershed. As a result measures need to be taken to protect its water quality, necessitating a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal variability of its processes, which this study aims to extend further. In this study five sampling locations were analyzed in the upper section of the Tisza over the time interval 1974–2005, dealing with 24 parameters using multi-variate data analysis methods. Employing time series analysis and taking the river's tributaries into account, the strong influence of the River Szamos was pointed out, while stochastic connections indicated the influence of the Tiszalök Water Barrage System on the spatial variation of the Tisza's processes. Finally, by using principal component analysis (PCA), the different background factors were revealed in space and time (seasonal separation) as well. During summer the processes tended to be nitrogen-related, while during winter inorganic compounds play a greater role. Most importantly, spatial variety was observable in the factors.
Authors:Edit Borbás, József Kovács, Katalin Fehér, Gábor Vid and István Gábor Hatvani
Water was observed in the sediment of Baradla Cave, located in Northeast Hungary. In order to investigate its characteristics wells were drilled. Hydrochemical samples were taken directly from the wells and from the cave stream on several occasions between November 2009 and April 2010. In February 2010 there was an opportunity to observe how the chemical composition of the waters of the creeks and the sediments altered during the snow melt. Several chemical parameters of the samples were analyzed. Based on the results of the hydrochemical analyses cluster analysis was applied to define the relationship between the sampling points. Discriminant analysis was conducted to verify the classification. As a result of the classification, the water of the observation wells in the sediment proved to be distinct from the water of the cave's creek and the springs on the surface.
Research shows that there is no permanent connection between the water in the cave sediment and the water of the cave creek in the cave water system.
Authors:Ádám Bede, Roderick B. Salisbury, András István Csathó, Péter Czukor, Dávid Gergely Páll, Gábor Szilágyi and Pál Sümegi
The Ecse-halom is a burial mound (kurgan) in the Hortobágy region of Hungary. Built in the Late Copper Age/Early Bronze Age by nomadic people from the east, it now stands on the border between two modern settlements. A road of medieval origin runs along this border and cuts deeply into the body of the mound. The southern half of the mound was plowed and used as a rice field, and later a military observation tower was built on top of it. Despite this disturbance, the surface of the mound is in decent condition and provides a home for regionally significant, species-rich loess steppe vegetation. The mound comprises two construction layers as indicated by magnetic susceptibility and thin-section micro-morphological analysis. Examination of organic compounds and carbonate content at various levels showed different values, which suggest a variety of natural and anthropogenic stratigraphic layers. Mid-sized siltstone fraction is dominant in the section. The layers originate from the immediate vicinity of the mound, but have different characteristics than present-day soils. These mounds contain a valuable record of cultural and environmental conditions occurring at the time of their construction, and also serve as a refuge for ancient loess vegetation; therefore their conservation is highly recommended.