This article is a case study about the investigation of various technologies in a relatively small footprint to achieve a constant reliable quantity and quality of treated water suitable for municipal and boiler feed applications as well, while inlet raw water sources can be very much different causing a wide range of quality fluctuation.
Authors:A. Gábor, V. Kovács, Zs. Fajcsák and É. Martos
This study evaluated the diet of 615 professional athletes (PA) (306 males and 309 females; 21.3±5.5 years) compared with 312 age-matched non-athletes (NA), who participated in the 3
Hungarian National Dietary Survey in 2003. Dietary intake was assessed based on 3-day food record. In males, daily energy intake was 3513±1143 kcal and 2965±551 kcal for PA and NA, respectively (P<0.001). In females, there were no significant differences between PA and NA concerning the intake of energy. Athletes reported insufficient energy intake in both genders. Similarly to NA, PA failed to meet the adequate rate for macronutrients. Energy intake from carbohydrates was lower (47.3±6.6% in male and 49.2±7.3% in female) and from lipids higher (36.8±6% in male and 35.2±6.7% in female) than recommended. Athletes reported higher intakes of vitamins C and E, potassium and calcium than NA. Sodium and cholesterol intake was highly above the RDA in every group. Surprisingly, sodium intake of NA was even higher than PA in females (5535±1282 mg/day vs. 5068±2028 mg/day; P<0.05). In addition, iron intake of women was less than two-third of RDA in both groups. In summary, the dietary habits of elite athletes showed many misconceptions and lack of proper nutrition in terms of quality. These findings point out the need for adequate education of athletes and trainers to provide optimal food choice and for continuous monitoring of dietary pattern to maximize exercise performance and improve recovery.
Authors:V. Kovács, Zs. Fajcsák, A. Gábor and É. Martos
This paper examines the effect of breakfast skipping on weight status and abdominal obesity in urban school children. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to all primary schools (n=18) in Óbuda, Budapest. A total of 3714 students (1860 boys, 1854 girls; age range: 7–15 years) were involved. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Data about obesity-related dietary habits (breakfast skipping, fruit and vegetable intake, number of meals, soft drinks consumption) were collected via self-administered questionnaire. One-fifth (21.3%) of the participants were regularly skipping breakfast. Frequency of regular breakfast decreased with age. Breakfast skipping was predictive for higher body mass index (BMI) and WC in a model that was adjusted for age, gender and all studied nutritional factors. Confirming these results, both BMI (19.3±4.0 vs. 18.1±3.7 kg m
; P<0.001) and WC (67.3±12.0 vs. 63.9±10.8 cm; P<0.001) were higher among breakfast skippers than in breakfast eaters. Odds ratios for breakfast skipping for being obese or abdominal obese were 1.59 (95%CI: 1.12–2.26) and 2.04 (95%CI: 1.57–2.65), respectively. Although prospective studies are needed to verify the causality between breakfast skipping and obesity, our findings support the importance of promoting regular breakfast consumption among school children.
Authors:Zs. Fajcsák, V. Kovács, A. Gábor, T. Szamosi and É. Martos
This is a preliminary report on the benefit of a weekly low glycemic load (GL) diet intervention designed to positively effect body weight (BW) and body composition by reducing satiety in overweight/obese (BMI=28.38±5.86 kg m
) pre-pubertal children over a 12-week period. Thirteen otherwise healthy (11.46±1.94 years) children participated in the study. The low GL diet intervention included attending a weekly nutrition consultation, exchanging of at least 50% of the high glycemic index (GI) foods with low GI foods in the diet and portion control. Dietary changes were made based on weekly 4-day food-diaries over the 12-weeks. There were significant reductions in BW (68.08±22.03 vs. 65.64±22.12 kg), body mass index (BMI; 28.38±5.86 vs. 27.09±6.2 kg m
), fat mass (26.02±12.8 vs. 23.64±12.8 kg) % body fat (36.82±6.1 vs. 33.81±7.4), and circumference measurements; waist (95.73±14.01 vs. 90.76±14.26 cm); hip circumference (97.23±13.37 vs. 93.34±18.80 cm); thigh circumference (59.08±7.9 vs. 56.80±8.1 cm). The significant reduction of self-reported hunger level (3.46±0.92 vs. 1.51±1.11) was also observed. The 12-week low GL diet seems to be a practical, effective approach to treat obesity in children.